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Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE)

 Accomplishments

Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.

Image: Hazmat cleanup crew

The SITE Demonstration Program was tasked with encouraging the development and implementation of innovative treatment technologies for hazardous waste site remediation, and monitoring and measurement technologies. The SITE program’s successful outcomes are many and varied. The program:

  • Contributed to significant health benefits by reducing exposure to contaminants
  • Created community benefits by treating the “untreatable”
  • Contributed to land revitalization in local communities
  • Reduced program costs across federal agencies and environmental cleanup costs for the public and private sectors
  • Served as a catalyst for the remediation technology industry domestically and abroad
  • Provided technical expertise to federal, state, and international technology evaluation programs
  • Increased the rate of use of innovative technologies
  • Generated valuable scientific knowledge for technology development
  • Created private-sector benefits through partnerships

Over two decades, the program evaluated 137 innovative remediation technologies and 45 monitoring and measurement technologies. SITE demonstrations were conducted at locations across the country and around the world. The technologies represent a diverse collection of innovative technical and engineering approaches control, reduce, or remove the toxicity of contamination in soil, sediment, groundwater, and surface water.

Examples of Technologies Demonstrated by SITE
Constructing vertical or horizontal barriers through which contaminated groundwater may flow and is chemically or physically treated by materials in the barriers. Read about the use of PRBs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Test Site demonstration in Colorado.
Applying steam to an aquifer to vaporize volatile or semi volatile contaminants, then capturing the contaminated vapors to cool and condense above ground. Read about stream enhanced Remediation at Loring Air Force Base.
Using Sediment caps to form a barrier between contaminated sediments and aquatic life above while encouraging both degradation and sequestration of the contaminants. Read about the use of 'active' sediment capping technology at the Anacostia Waterfront in the District of Columbia.
Revitalize land use for local communities by using chemical oxidation technology for treating contaminants in shallow sand and silt environments. Read about the use of Chemical Oxidation Technology at the Roosevelt Mill Site in Vernon, Connecticut.

The SITE program has served as an excellent model for other technology evaluation programs, demonstrating the benefits that result from federal, state, and private sector collaboration in addressing environmental technical challenges.

Completed Surface Water Treatment Technology Demonstrations
Technology Developer Location
Lime Lagoons ARCL/O Leviathan Mine Site, CA, Region 9
Chemical Leaching and Microfiltration EPCO Water, Inc. Iron Mountain Mine Site, CA, Region 9
Biphasic Lime Treatment State of CA Leviathan Mine Site, CA, Region 9
Compost Free Bioreactor University of Nevada, Reno Leviathan Mine Site, CA, Region 9
Anaerobic Compost Constructed Wetlands System Technology Colorado Department of Health Burleigh Tunnel, Clear Creek, CO, Region 8
Electro-coagulation General Environmental, Inc. DOE Rocky Flats, Denver, CO, Region 8
Multiple Innovative Passive Mine Drainage Technologies Region 8 and State of Colorado Summitville, CO, Region 8
Olefilter InPlant Systems Petroleum Products Corp., Miami, FL, Region 4
Ultraviolet Ozone Treatment for Liquids US Filter Lorentz Barrel and Drum site, San Jose, CA, Region 9
Colloid Polishing Method FIlter Flow Technology Rocky Flats, Denver, CO, Region 8
Spray Irrigation University of Nebraska, Lincoln Hasting, NE, Region 7
Removal of Dissolved Metals Dynapore/Forager Sponge National Lead Industries, Pedricktown, NJ, Region 2
Jet Grouting for Control of Hydraulic gradient STD Technologies Mike Horse Mine, MT, Region 8

 

Completed Sediment Treatment Technology Demonstrations
Technology Developer Location
In-situ Thermal Terra Therm, LLC Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO, Region 8
Sediment Soil Washing Bergmann, USA Saginaw Bay Confined Disposal Facility, Exxexville, MI, Region 5
Electrochemical Oxidation Weiss Associates Watcom Waterway, Bellingham, WA, Region 10
Glass Furnace Technology Minery Fox River, WI, Region 5

 

Completed Soil Treatment Technology Demonstrations
Technology Developer Location
Soil Washing Brice Environmental Services Corporation ABE Superfund Site, Fairbanks, AK, Region 9
Tunable-Pulse Combustion Sonotech, Inc. IRF, Jefferson, AR, Region 6
Pyreton Burner American Combustion Technologies Combustion Research Facility, Pine Bluff, AR, Region 6
In-situ Subsurface Bioremediation Bio-Rem Butler Williams AFB, Phoenix, AZ, Region 9
Thermal Desorption Smith Environmental Services Pesticide Site, Phoenix, AZ, Region 9
Ground Water Extraction Xerox Two Phase Extraction McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA, Region 9
Integrated In-situ Vapor Extraction and Stream Vacuum Stripping Process AWD Technologies Lockheed Site, Burbank, CA, Region 9
In-situ Enhanced Extraction Berkeley Environmental Restoration LLNL, Livermore, CA, Region 9
Soil Washing / Biological Treatment BioGenesis Santa Maria Healthcare Services, Santa Barbara, CA, Region 9
Solvated Electron Treatment of Chlorinated Organics Commodore Environmental Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA, Region 9
Chemical Stabilization of Mercury Mining Wastes E&C Williams Clear Lake, CA, Region 9
Steam Injection/Vacuum Extraction Hughes Environmental Rainbow Disposal, Huntington Beach, CA, Region 9
In-situ Steam/Air Stripping Novterra, Inc. Annex Terminal, San Pedro, CA, Region 9
Silicate Compounds by Solidification/Stabilization STC Selam Site, Fresno, CA, Region 9
Gasification Process Texaco Syngas, Inc. South El Monte, CA, Region 9
Bioremediation Grace Dearborn, Inc. Domtar Wood Preserving Site, Trenton, Ontario, Canada
Treatment Train for Contaminated Soils Toronto Harbor Commissioners Toronto, Canada
Biological Treatment, Hydrogen Release Compound Regenesis Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO, Region 8
In-situ Thermal Terra Therm, LLC Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Denver, CO, Region 8
MatCon Modified Asphalt Cap Wilder Construction Co. Dover AFB, DE, Region 3
Six Phase Heating of TCE CES, Inc. Cape Canaveral, FL, Region 4
Infrared Incinerator Grupo Italimprese (Ecova Europa) Peak Oil, Fl, Region 4
Potassium Permanganate Oxidation of TCE IT Corporation Cape Canaveral, FL, Region 4
Dynamic Underground stripping of TCE IWR Cape Canaveral, FL, Region 4
Soil Washing US EPA Mobile Home Volume Reduction Unit Escambia Wood Preserving Site, Pensacola, FL, Region 4
In-situ Solidification and Deep Soil Mixing International Waste Technologies GE Hialeah, Region 4
Stabilization of Organics WASTECH, Inc. Robins AFB, Warner Robins, GA, Region 9
SET Process for PCBs in Soils Commodore Advanced Sciences Naval Facility, Pearl Harbor, HI, Region 9
Surfactant Flushing Duke Engineering Naval Facility, Pearl Harbor, HI, Region 9
Electrokinetics for Lead Recovery Electrochemical Design Associates Naval Facility, Pearl Harbor, HI, Region 9
Phytoremediation of Radionuclides Argonne National Laboratory East Argonne National Laboratory East, Region 5
Thermal Desorption SoilTech, ATP Systems, Inc. Waukegan Harbor, IL, Region 5
Hydraulic Fracturing US EPA NRMRL Chicago, IL and Dayton, OH, Region 5
Solvent Extraction Resources Conservation, Co. Indiana Harbor, Gary, IN, Region 5
In-situ Electro-osmosis of TCE in Soil/Ground Water Monsanto/Dupont Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, KY, Region 4
Solvent Extraction CF Systems Corp. New Bedford Harbor, MA, Region 1
Thermal Desorption Shaw E&I Resolve Superfund Site, N. Dartsmouth, MA, Region 1
In-situ Valorization Terra Vac, Inc. Valley Mfg., Region 1
Subsurface Volatization and Ventilation System Billings and Association, Inc. Electro-Voice Buchanan, MI, Region 5
Thermal Gas Phase Reduction Process and Thermal Desorption ELI ECO-LOGIC, Inc. Bay City Municipal Landfill, Bay City, MI, Region 5
In-situ Vitrification GeoSafe Corp. Parsons Chemical Site, Grand Ledge, MI, Region 5
Infrared Incinerator Grupo Italimprese (Ecova Europa) Ross Township, OH, Region 5
Thermal Desorption (Physical) Roy F. Weston

Anderson Development, Andrian, MI, Region 5

Soils Washing Biotrol, Inc. Mcgillis & Gibbs Superfund Site, MN, Region 5
Removal of Lead from Soils COGNIS TERRAMET Twin Cities, Army Ammunition Plan, New Brighton, MN, Region 5
Anaerobic Biological Destruction of TNT in Soil JR Simplot Co. Weldon Spring, St Louis, MO, Region 7

 

Ground Water Treatment Technologies
Technology Developer Location
Chemical Oxidation Perox-Pure Calgon Carbon Corp. LLNL, Livermore, CA, Region 9
In-Well Vapor Stripping of Ground Water MACTEC Environmental, Inc. NASNI, San Diego, CA, Region 9
CAV-OX Oxidation Process Magnum Water Technology Edwards AFB, CA, Region 9
In-Well Air Stripping Roy F. Weston March AFB, CA, Region 9
Cross-Flow Pervaporation System for Removal of VOCs from Ground Water Zenon Environmental, Inc. North Island NAS Site 9, San Diego, CA, Region 9
Emulsified Zero-Valent Iron for DNAPL Remediation Geosyntec Cape Canaveral, FL, Region 4
Membrane Filtration SBP Technologies American Cresote Works, Pensacola, FL, Region 4
Biological Denitrification Eco Mat, Inc. Bendena Site, Bendena, KS, Region 7
Evaporation and Chemical Oxidation Wheelabrator Clean Air Systems Lake Charles, LA, Region 6
In-situ Anaerobic-Aerobic Bioremediation of Chlorinated Solvents Harding-Lawson Engineers Fisherville Mill Site, Grafton, MA, Region 1
Submerged Aerobic Fixed Film Reactor Allied Signal Corp. St Joseph, MI, Region 5
Biotreatment of Ground Water Biotrol, Inc. McGillis & Gibbs Superfund Site, MN, Region 5
Ex-situ Metal-Enhanced Biotic Degradation EnviroMetal Technologies, Inc. Wayne, NJ, Region 2
Bioreactor Integrated with an Ultrafiltration Membrane System Zenon Environmental, Inc. Upstate NY, Region 2
Membrane Microfiltration E.I. Dupont DeNemours & Co. Palmerton Zinc Pile, Palmerton, PA, Region 3
Contained Recovery of Oil Wastes Western Research Institute Stroudsburg, PA, Region 3
Reverse Osmosis: Disc-Tube Module Technology ROCHEM Separations, Inc. Central Landfill, Rhode Island, Region 1
High Energy Irradiation for Destruction of Organics in Aqueous Solutions & Sludge High Voltage Environmental Application, Inc. Savannah River Site, SC, Region 4
Freeze Barrier Arctic Foundations Anchorage DOE Oak Ridge Facility, TN, Region 4
Photocatalytic Aqueous Phase Organics Destruction Matrix Photocatalytic Ltd. Oak Ridge, TN, Region 4
Phytoremediation of TCE in Ground Water ASC/EMR Wright Patterson AFB Carswell AFB, Fort Worth, TX, Region 6
In-situ Thermal (Steam Injection) Steam Tech Environmental Services Loring AFB, Caribou, ME, Region 1
Enhanced In-situ Bioremediation of Chlorinated Compounds ITT Industries ITT, Night Vision Facility, Roanoke, VA, Region 3
Ground Water Extraction Xerox Two Phase Extraction McClellan AFB, Sacramento, CA, Region 9
Biovault NY State Bioremediation ENSR Sweden-3 Chapman Site, Brockport, NY, Region 2
Ultraviolet Ozone Treatment for Liquids US Filter Lorentz Barrel and Drum Site, San Jose, CA, Region 9
Colloid Polishing Method Filter G-Flow Technology Rocky Flats, Denver, CO, Region 8
Spray Irrigation University of Nebraska, Lincoln Hastin, NE, Region 7
Removal of Dissolved Metals Dynapore/Forager Sponge National Lead Industries, Pedrickstown, NJ, Region 2
Jet Grouting for Control of Hydraulic Gradient STG Technologies Mike Horse Mine, MT, Region 8

Risk Mangement Research | Air and Climate Change Research | Water Research | Ecosystems Restoration Research | Land Risk Management Research | Technology: Sustainable Technologies Research, Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV), and Technology Assessments

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