Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE)
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In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, this report evaluates the Ultrox International technology and its applicability as an on-site treatment method for contaminated groundwater. The ULTROX® technology (a registered trademark of Ultrox International) simultaneously uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize dissolved organic contaminants (subject of a U.S. patent), including chlorinated hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds, found in groundwater or wastewater. This report evaluates both treatment efficiency and economic data from the SITE demonstration and seven case studies.
Under the SITE Program, the ULTROX® technology demonstration was conducted at the Lorentz Barrel and Drum (LB&D) site, San Jose, California, in February and March of 1989. During this demonstration, the Ultrox system achieved volatile organic compound (VOC) removals greater than 90 percent. The majority of VOCs were removed through chemical oxidation. However, stripping also contributed toward removal of a few VOCs, such as l,l,l- trichloroethane (l,l,l-TCA) and l,ldichloroethane (l,l-DCA). The treated groundwater met the applicable National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) standards for discharge into a local waterway. In addition, there were no harmful air emissions to the atmosphere from the Ultrox system, which is equipped with an off-gas treatment unit.
The results from seven case studies are also summarized in this report. Six of the seven case studies involved facilities that were primarily contaminated with VOCs and polychlorinated biphenyls, in the ppm and ppb concentration ranges. The other case study involved a wood treatment facility contaminated with phenol at 150 to 200 mg/L and pentachlorophenol at 1 mg/L. In all the case studies, effluent from the Ultrox system met the applicable discharge standards. Pretreatment was required for influent that contained high levels of manganese, oil and grease, and suspended solids.
Potential sites for applying this technology to contaminated groundwater include facilities with sources of petroleum, wood treatment facilities, and facilities with sources of chlorinated or nonchlorinated solvents. Economic data indicate that the capital costs for the reactor and ozone generator would range between $70,000 to approximately $260,000. Operation and maintenance costs can be as low as $0.25 per 1,000 gallons treated, considering only oxidant and electrical costs, or exceed $17 per 1,000 gallons treated, if extensive pretreatment is required.