Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE)
Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.
Pilot-Scale Demonstration of a Slurry-Phase Biological Reactor for Creosote-Contaminated Soil Applications Analysis Report (PDF) (71 pp, 2.47 MB) () January 1993
In support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program, a pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase bioremediation process was performed May 1991 at the EPA's Test & Evaluation Facility in Cincinnati, OH. In this 12-wk study, a creosote-contaminated soil from the Burlington Northern Superfund site in Brainerd, MN, was used to test the slurry-phase bioreactors. During the demonstration, five 64-L stainless-steel bioreactors, equipped with agitation, aeration, and temperature controls, were used. The pilot-scale study employed a 30% soil slurry, an inoculum of indigenous polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders, an inorganic nitrogen supplement in the form of NH,-N, and a nutrient broth containing potassium, phosphate, magnesium, calcium, and iron.
During the course of the study, levels of soil-bound and liquid-phase PAHs, total petroleum hydrocarbons, nutrients, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, toxicity, and microbial populations were monitored. The total percent reduction of soil-bound PAHs over 12-wk of testing ranged from greater than 72% to greater than 90% (average reduction exceeded 87%).
This Applications Analysis Report presents an evaluation of treatment efficiency and technical and economic applicability of this technology based on results from the SITE demonstration and from three case studies. The conclusions from the pilot-scale SITE demonstration and case studies are (1) the slurry-phase biological treatment can be used to effectively remediate soils and sludges contaminated with polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to below regulatory standards, (2) the technology can potentially be implemented at nearly any site with applicable wastes, and (3) costs for the technology range from about $50 to $250 per yd3 and largely depend on site-specific factors such as the type of contamination, quantity of waste, emission control needs, materials handling, and cleanup criteria.