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Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE)


Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.

  Program CAV-OX® Process Magnum Water Technology

This report evaluates the ability of the CAV-OX cavitation oxidation process to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in aqueous wastes. This report also presents economic data based on the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration and nine case studies.

The patented CAV-OX' process was developed by Magnum Water Technology (Magnum) to destroy organic contaminants in water. The process uses hydrodynamic cavitation, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and hydrogen peroxide to oxidize organic compounds in water at or below milligrams-per-liter levels. This treatment technology produces no air emissions and generates no sludge or spent media that require further processing, handling, or disposal. Ideally, the end products are water, carbon dioxide, halides, and in some cases, organic acids. The process uses mercury vapor lamps to generate UV radiation. The principal oxidants in the process, hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl radicals, are produced by hydrodynamic cavitation and direct photolysis of hydrogen peroxide at UV wavelengths.

The CAV-OX process was demonstrated under the SITE Program at Edwards Air Force Base (Edwards) Site 16, California. Over a 4-week period in March 1993, about 8,500 gallons of VOCcontaminated grotmdwater was treated with both the CAV-OX I low-energy process and the CAV-OX II high-energy process. For the SITE demonstration, some configurations of the CAV-OX process achieved trichloroethene (TCE) and benzene removal efficiencies of greater than 99.9 percent. Likewise, some configurations of the CAV-OX process met State of California drinking water action levels and federal drinking water maximum contaminant levels for TCE and benzene at the 95 percent confidence level. Influent concentrations of TCE and benzene ranged from 1,500 to 2,000 and 250 to 500 micrograms per liter, respectively. No scaling was observed on any of the UV tubes. Magnum reports that scaling does not occur in the CAV-OX process.

Potential sites for applying this technology include Superfund and other hazardous waste sites that have grotmdwater or aqueous wastes contaminated with organic compounds. Economic data indicate that groundwater remediation costs could range from about $13 to $31 per 1,000 gallons, depending on individual site characteristics. Of these costs, CAV-OX process direct treatment costs could range from about $5 to $11 per 1,000 gallons.

The document includes three appendixes. Appendix A describes Magnum's experience in developing and applying the principles of hydrodynamic cavitation in combination with advanced oxidation for the treatment of industrial effluents and groundwater. Appendix B briefly describes Edwards Site 16 and summarizes the SITE demonstration activities and demonstration results. Appendix C summarizes nine case studies provided by Magnum.


Richard Eilers

Risk Mangement Research | Air and Climate Change Research | Water Research | Ecosystems Restoration Research | Land Risk Management Research | Technology: Sustainable Technologies Research, Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV), and Technology Assessments

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