Handling and Disposal of Sludges From Combined Sewer Overflow Treatment, Phase II – Impact Assessment (EPA/600/2-77/053b) December 1977
This report documents the results of an assessment of the effort that the United States will have to exert in the area of sludge handling and disposal if, in fact, full-scale treatment of combined sewer overflows is to become a reality. The results indicate that nationwide an average yearly sludge volume of 156,000,000 cu m (41.5 x 10 to the 9th power gal.) could be expected from CSO if complete CSO treatment were achieved. Evaluation of the effect of bleed/pump-back of CSO sludge on the hydraulic, solids and/or organic loadings to the dry-weather plant indicated that overloading would occur in most instances. The most promising treatment trains were found to include possible grit removal, lime stabilization, optional gravity thickening, optional dewatering and land application or landfill. Land application systems can be considered as viable alternatives for CSO treatment and disposal. Estimates indicate that first investment capital costs range from $447-10,173/ha ($181-4129/ac) with annual costs of $139-1630/ha ($56-660/ac).
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