Urban Stormwater Management and Technology: Update and Users’ Guide (EPA/600/8-77/014) September 1977
A continuation and reexamination of the state-of-the-art of storm and combined sewer overflow technology is presented. Essential areas of progress of the stormwater research and development program are keyed to the approach methodology and user assistance tools available, stormwater characterization, and evaluation of control measures. Results of the program are visible through current and ongoing master planning efforts.
Assessment of urban runoff pollution is referenced to the developing national data base, localized through selective monitoring and analysis, and quantified as to potential source and magnitude using techniques ranging from simplified desktop procedures to complex simulation models. Stormwater pollutants are characterized by (1) source potential, (2) discharge characteristics, (3) residual products, and (4) receiving water impacts.
Control and corrective measures are separated into nonstructural, termed Best Management Practices (BMPs), and structural alternatives. Best Management Practices focus 6n source abatement, whereas structural alternates roughly parallel conventional wastewater treatment practices of end-of-the-pipe correction. Structural alternatives may include storage (volume sensitive) and treatment (rate sensitive) options and balances. Multipurpose and integrated (dry-wet) facilities have been the most successful with process simplicity and operational control flexibilitiy prime considerations.
Best Management Practices have decided benefits over structural alternatives—including lower cost, earlier results, and an improved and cleaner neighborhood environment—but lack quantified action-impact relationships. For combined sewer overflow abatement, increasing degrees of structural control are necessary.
Successful program implementation is illustrated for several selected case histories.
The Update is designed to be used in conjunction with and not as a replacement of the earlier report.
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