|Greenhouse Gases From Small-Scale Combustion Devices in Developing Countries: Phase IIA, Household Stoves in India (EPA/600/R-00/052) June 2000
This report presents a database containing a systematic set of measurements of the carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, total nonmethane organic carbon, nitrous oxide, sulfur oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and trisodium phosphate emissions from the most common combustion devices in the developing world: household stoves.
Using 8 biomass fuels, kerosene, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), and biogas, a number of different stoves were examined for a total of 28 fuel/stove combinations. Because fuel and stove parameters were monitored as well, the database also allows examination of the trade-offs among emissions per unit fuel mass, fuel energy, delivered energy, and construction of complete carbon balances.
Confirming the preliminary results of a pilot study conducted in Manila, the database shows that burning solid biomass fuels typically results in substantial products of incomplete combustion (PICs). In addition, biomass stoves usually have substantially lower thermal efficiencies than those using liquid or gaseous fuel. As a result, the emissions of carbon dioxide and PICs per unit of delivered energy are considerably greater in the biomass stoves.
In general, the ranking follows what has been called the “energy ladder” from lower- to higher-quality fuels, i.e., emissions decrease and efficiencies increase in the following order: dung-crop residues, wood, kerosene, and gas. There are variations, however, depending on specific stove designs.
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