|Environmental Impacts of the Use of Orimulsion, Report to Congress on Phase 1 of the Orimulsion Technology Assessment Program (EPA/600/R-01/056a) July 2001
Orimulsion, a bitumen-in-water emulsion produced in Venezuela, was evaluated to provide a better understanding of the potential environmental impacts associated with its use as a fuel. A series of pilot-scale tests were conducted at EPA's Environmental Research Center in Research Triangle Park, NC, to provide data on emissions of air pollutants from the combustion of Orimulsion 100 (the original formulation), Orimulsion 400 (a new formulation introduced in 1998), and a No. 6 (residual) fuel oil. These results, and results of full-scale tests reported in the technical literature, were evaluated to determine the potential air pollutant emissions and the ability of commercially available pollution control technologies to adequately reduce those emissions.
Emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfur trioxide, particulate matter (PM), and organic and metal hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) were measured from each of these three fuels to provide a comparison between the "new" fuel (Orimulsion) and a fuel that has been commonly used in the U.S. (the No. 6 fuel oil). Results indicate that:
Both the full-scale results found in the literature and the pilot-scale results measured at EPA indicate that conventional air pollution control technologies can effectively reduce emissions to very low levels, depending on the type of technology used and the desired emission levels. Because the bitumen in Orimulsion is heavier than water and due to the presence of a surfactant in the fuel, spills of Orimulsion are likely to be more difficult to contain and recover than are spills of heavy fuel oil, especially in fresh water. Additional study is needed before adequate containment and response approaches can be developed. Little, if any, work has been conducted by the fuel producer or the scientific community to address the remaining spill-related issues.
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