|Environmental Technology Verification Report, Removal of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water, Kinetico Incorporated, Pall/Kinetico Purefecta Drinking Water Treatment System (54 pp, 1.56 MB) (EPA/600/R-05/108) September 2005
Verification Statement (PDF) (6 pp, 196 KB)
The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta point-of-use drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta uses a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane, carbon filters, and a bacteria/virus removal filter to treat drinking water.
Treated water is stored in a 3-gallon storage tank. The system was first tested with only the RO membrane component in place. The target challenge concentration of each chemical for each RO membrane test was 1 milligram per liter. Following the RO membrane challenges, the post-membrane carbon filter component was challenged alone with each chemical that the RO membrane did not decrease to less than 10 micrograms per liter (except for cesium, which is not well removed by carbon). The target feed concentration of each chemical to a carbon filter component was the maximum effluent level measured during the RO membrane tests.
A total of 20 RO membrane components were divided into ten pairs and tested. Each pair of membranes was tested with only one of the ten organic chemicals because of concern that a chemical could compromise the integrity of the membrane material or membrane seals. One pair of RO membrane components was also challenged with the inorganic chemicals. Each RO membrane chemical challenge was conducted over a one-day period. Influent and effluent samples were collected during the operation period and the next morning.
Post-membrane carbon filter challenges were conducted over a 15-hour duration. Two filters were tested for each chemical challenge, and each pair was used for only one challenge. Influent and effluent samples were collected at the beginning, middle, and end of the challenge period.
Considering both the RO membrane challenge and post-membrane carbon filter challenge results combined, the Purefecta system reduced all of the challenge chemicals but cesium by 99 percent or more.
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