|In Situ Treatment of Soil and Ground Water Contaminated With Chromium, Technical Resource Guide (PDF) (97 pp, 1.32 MB) (EPA/625/R-00/005) October 2000
Chromium is the second most common metal found at sites for which Records of Decision have been signed. At many industrial and waste disposal locations, chromium has been released to the environment via leakage and poor storage during manufacturing or improper disposal practices. Industrial applications most commonly use chromium in the hexavalent chromium (chromium [VI]) form, which is acutely toxic and very mobile in ground water. Ground water extraction and treatment has traditionally been used to remediate chromium-contaminant plumes. This method provides interception and hydraulic containment of the plume but may require long-term application to meet chromium (VI) remediation goals and may not be effective at remediating source-zone chromium (VI).
New information and approaches have been developed for chromium-contaminated soil and ground water treatment. The purpose of this report is to bring together the most current information pertaining to the science of chromium contamination and the in situ treatment and control of sites with ground water or soil contaminated with chromium.
A number of available in situ technologies or treatment approaches use chemical reduction and fixation for chromium remediation. These include geochemical fixation, permeable reactive barriers (PRBs), and reactive zones. Other types of in situ treatment under development include enhanced extraction, electrokinetics, natural attenuation, phytoremediation, and biological processes that can be used within PRBs and reactive zones.
Detailed discussions of these in situ technologies are contained in this report. Each discussion consists of a technology description with its advantages and disadvantages, status, and performance and cost data. A comparative summary of the status of the technologies is presented. More conventional ex situ approaches and other proven and well-documented technologies for chromium treatment or control are not reviewed within this report. The emphasis in this report is on innovative in situ approaches for chromium remediation that are not as well documented but have been demonstrated or are being developed.
This report is not a design document; it is a resource guide. Although it does contain design and cost information, it is primarily intended to enable regulators, scientists, and engineers to evaluate the potential use of various treatment technologies, or combinations of these technologies, to clean up chromium-contaminated sites effectively.
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