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  Handbook, Approaches for the Remediation of Federal Facility Sites Contaminated With Explosive or Radioactive Wastes (EPA/625/R-93/013) September 1993

Military operations have resulted in the contamination of soil and ground water at many federal facility sites. Several of these sites are undergoing corrective action to reduce risk. This handbook covers safety concerns, sampling methods, treatment, and management options for explosive and radioactive wastes that may be found on these sites and will be of use to all parties involved in the remediation.

Treatment methods covered in this handbook include:

  • Incineration
  • Biodegradation, including composting
  • Open burn/open detonation
  • Recycling of propellants
  • Ultraviolet oxidation
  • Activated carbon
  • Precipitation
  • Ion exchange
  • Polymer encapsulation
  • Vitrification
  • Grouting

Management methods for unexploded ordinances, compressed gas cylinders, and reactive chemicals are also presented.

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