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  Manual, Ground Water and Leachate Treatment Systems (135 pp, 12.3 MB) (EPA/625/R-94/005) January 1995

Past disposal of hazardous and solid waste has resulted in ground water contamination. At many waste sites, remediation of ground water involves extracting the ground water, then treating it by an ex situ treatment process. Although similar compounds and treatment technologies may be involved, the design considerations for ex situ treatment of ground water or leachate differ from those from industrial waste treatment systems because of:

  • Dilute concentrations of multiple contaminants
  • Variable flow rates
  • Process-interfering colloids
  • Contaminant concentrations that vary over time

This manual was developed for remedial design engineers and regulatory personnel who oversee the ex situ ground water or leachate treatment efforts of the regulated community. The manual can serve as an initial technology screening guide. It also addresses technical considerations important in the design evaluation phase. Design considerations include flow and contaminant concentration variability, life-cycle design, package plants, materials of construction and compatibility, and residuals management.

Bench-, pilot-, and full-scale treatability information on contaminants frequently found on Superfund sites is provided.

The appendix contains fact sheets on 14 technologies used for treating ground water or leachate. These sheets include information on technology status, limitations, design criteria, residuals generation, and cost.

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