||Capsule Report, Evaporation Process (EPA/625/R-96/008) September 1996
Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds, are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed.
Failure analysis has shown that:
- To a high degree of probability, seals, valves, and fittings can fail because of overheating, mechanical stress, and changes in ambient temperature; evaporator failure can be caused by foaming and entrainment
- To a moderate degree of probability, relief valves can fail because of overpressure during startups, upsets, and shutdowns, and because of plugged piping and membrane modules due to solids buildup
- To a lower probability, failures can occur because of freezing and miscellaneous mechanical malfunctions
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