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  Handbook, Advanced Photochemical Oxidation Processes (97 pp, 1.82 MB) (EPA/625/R-98/004) December 1998

The development and application of chemical oxidation technologies has gained much attention in recent years as a result of research and development in both the public and private sectors. Chemical oxidation technologies are useful in the treatment of a wide range of pollutant s found in soil, air and aqueous solutions. The main research focus has been on ground water, wastewater, and drinking water. Of particular interest is the use of ultraviolet light (photocatalysis) to enhance the degradation of volatile organic compounds present at low concentrations (<ppm) in contaminated media. Photochemical systems offer some distinct advantages over more conventional technologies, such as air stripping, vapor extraction, and carbon adsorption. Conventional separation technologies merely separate and transfer the contaminants from one phase to another. Moreover, when photocatalytic processes are carried out effectively, mineralization and complete destruction of contaminants occur. For example, cyanide, chlorinated aliphatics, and complex aromatic compounds can be treated in reaction times on the order of a few minutes to several hours. Photochemical oxidation systems have the propensity to generate powerful oxidants or hydroxl radicals in the presence of ultraviolet light and chemical catalysts, such as hydrogen peroxide, titanium dioxide, Fenton's reagent, and ozone. Improved system configuration and photolytic efficiency have broadened the application and cost-effectiveness of photochemical oxidation processes. This handbook will serve as a guide and information resource for remedial project managers, on-scene coordinators, regulators (federal, state, and local), researchers, consultants, industry and other interested parties involved with the management of contaminated air, soil, and water. This handbook consolidates and updates information related to advanced photochemical oxidation processes from a variety of sources. It is intended that this information will enable decision makers to evaluate the efficacy and applicability of advanced chemical oxidation processes for remediating, treating, and controlling contaminated media and waste products.

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