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The following provides a list of publications, books, standards, and websites that contain additional information on both managing and conducting an LCA. While this list is not comprehensive, it serves as a starting point for researching LCA. If you would like to add a new LCA resource to the list, send an e-mail to Maryann Curran.
- EPA Documents
- LCA-Related Websites
- Conference Proceedings
- Case Studies
- Books and Reports
- ISO Standards
- Canadian LCA Standards
- Software and Databases
Disclaimer: Links to non-EPA sites and comments provided in the descriptions do not imply any official EPA endorsement. Furthermore, EPA does not accept any responsibility for the opinions, ideas, data, or products presented at those locations, or guarantee the validity of the information provided. EPA does not guarantee the suitability of the information for any specific purpose. Links to non-EPA servers are provided solely as a pointer to information on topics related to life cycle assessment that may be useful to EPA staff and the public.
EPA documents can be obtained through the following:
U.S. Department of Commerce
National Technical Information Service
Springfield, Virginia 22161
Report on the International Workshop on Electricity Data for Life Cycle Inventories (PDF) (208 pp, 3.25 MB) (EPA/600/R-01/041) July 2002
Life Cycle Engineering Guidelines (EPA/600/R-01-101) November 2001
Life Cycle Assessment for Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (PDF) (276 pp, 10.5 MB) (EPA/600/R-96/104) September 1996
Life Cycle Assessment for PC Blend 2 Aircraft Radome Depainter (EPA/600/R-96/094) 1996
Guidelines for Assessing the Quality of Life Cycle Inventory Analysis (EPA/530/R-95/010) 1995
Incorporating Environmental Costs and Considerations Into Decision Making: Review of Available Tools and Software, A Guide for Business and Federal Facility Managers (PDF) (390 pp, 20.4 MB) September 1995
Life Cycle Impact Assessment: A Conceptual Framework, Key Issues, and Summary of Existing Methods (PDF) (230 pp, 10 MB) (EPA/452/R-95/002) July 1995
Development of a Pollution Prevention Factors Methodology Based on Life Cycle Assessment: Lithographic Printing Case Study (PDF) (36 pp, 1.67 MB) (EPA/600/R-94/157) January 1994
Life Cycle Assessment: Public Data Sources for the LCA Practitioner (EPA/530/R-95/009) 1994
Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles (PDF) (128 pp, 7.97 MB)
Life Cycle Assessment: Inventory Guidelines and Principles (PDF) (132 pp, 8.68 MB) (EPA/600/R-92/245) February 1993
Life Cycle Design Guidance Manual (EPA/600/R-92/226) 1993
Design for the Environment (DfE) - One of EPA's premier partnership programs, working with individual industry sectors to compare and improve the performance and human health and environmental risks and costs of existing and alternative products, processes, and practices. DfE partnership projects promote integrating cleaner, cheaper, and smarter solutions into everyday business practices.
American Plastics Council - This website provides an abstract (PDF) (6 pp, 36 KB) on "Life Cycle Assessment and Public Policy Development for the Automotive Industry," presented at the Total Life Cycle Conference and Exposition, Auburn Hill, Michigan, April 7-9, 1997.
Architecture Week - Life Cycle Assessment Tools - Architecture Week reviews the tools that architects and designers can use in sustainable design
Australian Life Cycle Assessment Society - This site provides information on LCA projects that have been completed or are in progress internationally. There is a list of relevant literature and a repository for LCA papers.
BioMass Document Library - Contains a life cycle assessment of a biomass gasification combined-cycle system
Business and Sustainable Development: A Global Guide (http://www.iisd.org/business/tools/systems_lca.aspx) - Description of the applications of LCA and brief case study descriptions for Electrolux, Loup Valley Dairy, Volvo, and Wharington
Centre for Design at Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) - LCA definitions, events, courses, and Centre for Design publications
eco.cycle - A newsletter that shares information on policy and technical issues related to product environmental life cycle management (LCM)
Eco-Efficiency and Cleaner Production - Environment Australia: Sustainable Industry and Communities Section: An Introduction to Life Cycle Assessment
ecoinvent Centre - The Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories of LCI data and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods data
Environmental Expert.com - Articles - Search by the Technical Field "Management > Life Cycle Assessment" to view full articles related to LCA for free
Environmental Strategies Research (formerly fms) - Lists research projects and publications prepared by fms.
European Roundtable on Sustainable Consumption and Production (erScp) 2004 - This website provides abstracts, papers, and presentations from the roundtable session that was held on May 12-14, 2004 in Bilbao, Spain
Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) - Swiss environmental agency
German Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) - Germany's equivalent to EPA. This website provides general environmental information on a variety of topics including LCA.
InLCA, International Conference and Exhibition on Life Cycle Assessment: Tools for Sustainability - This conference took place in Arlington, Virginia, April 25-27, 2000. The site provides the conference agenda with links to abstracts and presentations.
InLCA/LCM 2004 On-Line Conference - This internet-based conference was held from July 11-24, 2004. Click on the Sessions link to view the abstracts and papers discussed during the conference.
Institute for Lifecycle Energy Analysis (ILEA) - Provides U.S. consumers with the education and tools necessary to make purchasing and lifestyle choices that work toward a sustainable global economy
International Aluminum Institute - Provides general information about the use of LCA as a comparative tool for competing materials, discusses aluminum's life cycle, and contains a LCA report on aluminum
International Conference on Eco-Efficiency - This conference is held in Leiden, Netherlands. It aims to evaluate and further develop a theoretical framework and operational methods for quantified and integrated eco-efficiency analysis, focused at practical application for decision making by firms, governments, and NGOs.
International Society for Industrial Ecology - An international professional and scientific organization devoted to the advancement of industrial ecology. Includes a strong component on LCA and life cycle management. This website also offers the Industrial Ecology Dissertation Database.
IVF (Swedish Institute for Production Engineering Research) - IVF has a large research program on LCAs; it also studies the possibility of including industrial hygiene into its LCAs
LCA Hotlist - This webpage is aimed at people working in the field of LCA and provides many links to LCA-related information, such as homepages of LCA sites, results of LCA case studies, LCA software, inventory data, and newsletters.
Life Cycle Assessment Links - Extensive list of resources including conferences, LCA software, consultants, publications, and various organizations involved with LCA
Life Cycle Management for Green Electronics at Fraunhofer IZM - Information on environmental issues concerning electronics, including life cycle management, life cycle engineering, eco-design strategies and tools, case studies, and research activities
National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) - Provides a list of events, publications, and links related to LCA.
National Renewable Energy Laboratory - NREL provides direction, focus, and support to the development and commercialization of various research projects being supported by DOE. NREL and its partners created the U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database to help LCA practitioners answer questions about environmental impact.
RTI's Life Cycle Assessment Program - Brief summaries of LCA and life cycle-related projects with which RTI is involved
Sustainable Development in the World Steel Industry - Home of sustainable development in the world steel industry. This website is an initiative of the International Iron and Steel Institute to share its activities in working toward a more sustainable world.
The Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME) - The voice of the plastics manufacturing industry, representing over 90 percent of western Europe's polymer production capacity. APME publishes annual data on the consumption and recovery of plastics used in the main application sector of packaging, building and construction, automotive, and electric and electronic. LCA reports are available from the APME web site.
The ATHENA Sustainable Materials Institute - A world-leading source of data, expertise, and tools for assessing the environmental impacts of buildings and building products
The Sirii Environmental Data Network - This network is made up of several institutes that perform research and consultation within different branches of the industrial world in Sweden and abroad
U.S. Life Cycle Inventory Database - Provides information about the effort to develop a publicly available U.S. life cycle inventory (LCI) database and provides access to the existing LCI Database modules
UNEP SETAC Life Cycle Initiative - A program to develop and disseminate practical tools for evaluating the opportunities, risks, and trade-offs associated with products and services over their entire life cycle to achieve sustainable development.
Proceedings of the 5th Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment (2006) - The Australian Life Cycle Assessment Society, Melbourne, Australia, has proceedings from other conferences as well
Proceedings of the 2003 InLCA/LCM Conference, Seattle, Washington, September 22-25
International Conference on LCA in Foods. Gothenburg, Sweden, April 27-27, 2001. Organized by the Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology (SIK) in collaboration with Vito, the Flemish Institute for Technological Research
Nunn, J.A., L.J. Wibberley, and P.H. Scaife. (2000). “Coal in a Sustainable Society, Stage 1 – LCA of Steel and Electricity Production in Australia.” In: Proceedings 5th International conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies, Cairns, Australia, August.
SAE International. Proceedings of the 2000 Total Life Cycle Conference
Guidee, J. (ed.). (1999). “Danish-Dutch Workshop on LCA Methods, Held on 16-17 September 1999 at CML (Final Report, 26-10-’99) (http://www.leidenuniv.nl/cml/ssp/projects/lca2/workshopreportfinalversion.pdf).” (113 pp, 536 KB)
SAE International. Proceedings of the 1998 Total Life Cycle Conference
Eberle, U. (2007). "LCA Study and Environmental Benefits for Low Temperature Disinfection Process in Commercial Laundry.” Int. J. LCA (OnlineFirst), 12, 2: 127-138 | Abstract
Design for the Environment - This EPA webpage includes information about the following partnerships with industry: automotive refinishing, formulator, furniture, flame retardancy, industrial and institutional laundry, lead-free solder, nail salons, and wire and cable
Junnila, S., Horvath, A. and A. Guggemos. (2006). "Life Cycle Assessment of Office Buildings in Europe and the United States.” J. Infrastruct. Syst., 12, 1: 10–17. Abstract
Martchek, K. (2006). "Modeling More Sustainable Aluminium: Case Study (PDF).” (4 pp, 108 KB) Int. J. LCA, 11, 1: 4.
Ozeler, D., U. Yetis, and G.N. Demirer. (2006). "Life Cycle Assessment of Municipal Solid Waste Management Methods: Ankara Case Study.” Enviro. Int., 32, 3: 405-411. Abstract
Rivela, B., M.T. Moreira, I. Munoz, J. Rieradevall, and G. Feijoo. (2006). “Life Cycle Assessment of Wood Wastes: A Case Study of Ephemeral Architecture." Sci. Total Environ., 357, 1-3: 1-11. Abstract
Del Borghi, A., L. Binaghi, M. Del Borghi, and M. Gallo. (2005). “The Application of the Environmental Product Declaration to Waste Disposal in a Sanitary Landfill - Four Case Studies.” Int. J. LCA (OnlineFirst).
Hellweg, S., T.B. Hofstetter, and K. Hungerbuhler. (2005). “Time-Dependent Life Cycle Assessment of Emissions From Slag Landfills With the Help of Scenario Analysis.” J. Cleaner Production, 13, 3: 301-320.
Hischier, R., S. Hellweg, C. Capello, and A. Primas. (2005). "Life Cycle Inventories of Chemicals Based on Differing Data Availability.” Int. J. LCA, 10, 1: 59-67.
Lee, S.G. and X. Xu. (2005). “Design for the Environment: Life Cycle Assessment and Sustainable Packaging Issues.” Int. J. Environmental Technology and Management, 5, 1: 14-41. Abstract
Munoz, I., J. Rieradevall, X. Domenech, and C. Gazulla. (2005). “Using LCA to Assess Eco-Design in the Automotive Sector: Case Study of a Polyolefinic Door Panel.” Int. J. LCA (OnlineFirst).
Persson, C., M. Forling, and M. Svanstrom. (2005). “Life Cycle Assessment of the District Heat Distribution System. Part 3: use Phase and Overall Discussion.” Int. J. LCA (OnlineFirst).
Emmenegger, M.F., R. Frischknecht, M. Stutz, M. Guggisberg, R. Witschi, and T. Otto. (2004). "Life Cycle Assessment of the Mobile Communication System UMTS: Toward Eco-Efficient Systems (PDF).” (12 pp, 632 KB) Int. J. LCA (OnlineFirst): 1-12. Abstract
Geisler, G., S. Liechti, S. Hellweg, and K. Hungerbuhler. (2004). "Variability of Groundwater Exposure to Pesticides and Its Consideration in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).” Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 16: 4457-4468.
Hellweg, S., U. Fischer, M. Scheringer, and K. Hungerbuhler. (2004). "Environmental Assessment of Chemicals: Methods and Application to a Case Study of Organic Solvents.” Green Chemistry, 6, 8: 418-427. Abstract
Björklund, A. and G. Finnveden. (2003). “Recycling Revisited - Comparing Different Waste Management Strategies.” Presentation, 10th SETAC LCA Case Studies Symposium, Barcelona, Spain, December 3-4.
European Commission. (2003). “Study on External Environmental Effects Related to the Life Cycle of Products and Services, Appendix 2: Case Studies (PDF).” (114 pp, 1.04 MB) Directorate General Environment, Directorate A - Sustainable Development and Policy Support.
International Aluminum Institute. (2003). "Life Cycle Assessment of Aluminium: Inventory Data for the Worldwide Primary Aluminium Industry (PDF).” (52 pp, 984 KB)
Jungbluth, N. (2003). "Environmental Impacts of Food Purchases Investigated in a Modular LCA." Int. J. LCA, 7, 3: 188.
Jungbluth, N., M. Faist Emmenegger, and R. Frischknecht. (2003). “Indicators for Monitoring Environmental Trends of Food Consumption (PDF).” (1 pp, 124 KB) In: Proceedings 13th SETAC-Europe Annual Meeting, Hamburg, Delaware, p. 201.
McCulloch, L.D. (2003). “Improving the Multi-Media Assessment Capabilities of the U.S. EPA: Recommending the Use of Input/Output Life Cycle Analysis (PDF).” (81 pp, 952 KB) Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Publication No. LFEE 2003-003 TH.
Nilsson, M., et al. (2003). “Strategic Environmental Assessment of Natural Gas Grid Extensions.” FOI-S-0794-SE. 2003.
Stutz, M., et al. (2003). “Life Cycle Assessment of the Mobile Communication System UMTS: Toward Eco-Efficient Systems.” In: Proceedings IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment, Boston, MA, May 19-22, p 141-146. Abstract
Berlin, J. (2002). “Environmental Systems Analysis of Dairy Production.” ESA Report 2002:4. Chalmers University of Technology. Göteborg, Sweden.
Frischknecht, R., Jungbluth, N. and M. Nauser. (2002). "Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Switzerland: A Case Study for the Trade with Products from the Energy and Food Sector (PDF)." (21 pp, 72 KB)
Hischier, R., and L.M. Hilty. (2002). “Environmental Impacts of an International Conference.” Environmental Impact Assessment Review, Special Issue, 22-5.
Ilomoki, K., Nielsen, P.H., Bohez, E. and A. Sathasivan. (2002). “Environmental Optimization of Residential Water Supply.” Asian Institute of Technology (AIT).
Jungbluth, N. and R. Frischknecht. (2002). "Environmental Labeling of Green Electricity With LCA Key Parameter Models (PDF)." (4 pp, 236 KB) Presentation, 9th SETAC Europe LCA Cast Studies Symposium.
Kasetsart University. (2002). “LCA for Grid Electricity Power Plants in Thailand.”
Lidholm, Peter, et al. (2002). “Vehicle Industry Case Study Preliminary Results.” Volvo Technological Development Corporation.
Meier, P.J. (2002). “Life-Cycle Assessment of Electricity Generation Systems and Applications for Climate Change Policy Analysis (PDF).” (161 pp, 1.64 MB) Dissertation, Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin. Doc. No. UWFDM-1181.
Morana, R., S. Seuring, and U. Schneidewind. (2002). “Closing the Loop for Textiles - The Case Study of ECOLOG.” In: Proceedings 10th LCA Case Studies Symposium (SETAC), Barcelona, Spain, December 1–2.
Narayanaswamy, Venky, et al. (2002). “A Primer on Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Australian Grains (PDF).” (25 pp, 960 KB) Curtin University of Technology.
Ongmongkolkul, A., P.H. Nielsen, and M.M. Nazhad. (2002). “Life Cycle Assessment of Paperboard Packaging Produced in Thailand (PDF).” (10 pp, 84 KB) Asian Institute of Technology (AIT).
Row, J., et al. (2002). “Life Cycle Value Assessment (LCVA) of Fuel Supply Options for Fuel Cell Vehicles in Canada (PDF).” (177 pp, 970 KB) Pembina Institute.
Saouter, E., et al. (2002). “The Effect of Compact Formulations on the Environmental Profile of Northern European Granular Laundry Detergents Part II: Life Cycle Assessment (PDF).” (12 pp, 320 KB) Int. J. LCA, 7, 1: 27–38.
Srituhla, P. and P.H. Nielsen. (2002). “Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Shrimp Production in Thailand – A Case Study in Ranong Province.” Presentation, First National Environmental Conference, Environmental Engineering Association of Thailand (EEAT). Chiang Mai, January, pp. 323–329.
Tan, R. and A. Culaba. (2002). “Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Alternative Fuels for Road Vehicles (PDF).” (12 pp, 64 KB) De La Salle University, Manila.
Thailand Environment Institute in collaboration with Asian Productivity Organization (APO). (2002). “LCA Case Study Development in Selected APO Member Countries.”
"Nordic Network on LCA of Fish.” (2001). Second Workshop, Including Fishery-Related Marine Environmental Impact in Seafood LCAs, SIK-Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Hirtshals, Denmark, August 15–17.
“LCA of Fish.” (2001). First Workshop, Network for Environmental Assessment of Seafood Products Through LCA, Organized at SIK, Göteborg, Sweden, February 26–27.
“Life Cycle Assessment for Lithium and Lithium Compounds.”Abstract
Beer, T., et al. (2001). “Comparison of Transport Fuels, Final Report (EV45A/2/F3C) to the Australian Greenhouse Office on the Stage 2 Study of Life Cycle Emissions Analysis of Alternative Fuels for Heavy Vehicles (PDF).” (485 pp, 5.28 MB)
Brachfeld, D., et al. (2001). “Life Cycle Assessment of the Stonyfield Farm Product Delivery System (PDF).” (233 pp, 1.21 MB) Center for Sustainable Systems, University of Michigan. Report No. CSS01-03.
Carlsson-Kanyama, A. and K. Boström-Carlsson. (2001). “Energy Use for Cooking and Other Stages in the Life Cycle of Food: A Study of Wheat, Spaghetti, Pasta, Barley, Rice, Potatoes, Couscous, and Mashed Potatoes (PDF).” (33 pp, 144 KB) Fms 160, Report.
Carlsson-Kanyama, A., Pipping Ekström, M. and H. Shanahan. (2001). “Case Studies of Life Cycle Energy Use for the Swedish Food Supply: Possibilities for More Energy Efficient Diets.” In: Proceedings International Conference on LCA in Foods, Gothenburg, April 26–27. FOI-S-0032-SE.
Department of Environment and Heritage, Australian Government. (2001). “Project Greening the Building Life Cycle: Life Cycle Assessment Tools in Building and Construction (Building LCA).”
Faist, M., Kytzia, S. and P. Baccini. (2001). “The Impact of Household Food Consumption on Resource and Energy Management.” Int. J. Environment and Pollution, 15, 2: 183–199.
Frischknecht, R. and N. Jungbluth. (2001). “LCA Used in Key Parameter Models for and Efficient Ecolabelling of Green Electricity.” Presentation, 11th SETAC-Europe Annual Meeting, Madrid, Spain, May 8. Abstract
Jungbluth, N. and R. Frischknecht. "Use of LCA to Investigate the Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Trade of Food Products." International Conference on LCA in Foods. The Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg, Sweden. SIK-Document 143 (2001): 92-98.
Jungbluth, N. and R. Frischknecht. (2001). "Combining LCA and the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory to Determine the Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions Caused by International Trade." Presentation, 11th SETAC-Europe Annual Meeting, Madrid, Spain, May 9. Abstract
Jungbluth, N. and R. Frischknecht. (2001). "The Use of Eco-Indicator 99 for the Impact Assessment of Food Products." In: Proceedings International Conference on LCA in Foods, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Gothenburg, Sweden. SIK-Document 143: 1–6.
Kim, S., Hwang, T., and M. Overcash. (2001). “Life Cycle Assessment Study of Color Computer Monitor (PDF).” (10 pp, 372 KB) Int. J. LCA, 6, 1: 35–43.
Lundie, S., et al. (2001). “Evaluation of the Environmental Performance of the Australian Dairy Processing Industry Using Life Cycle Assessment: Life Cycle Inventory for Milk Powder, Market Milk, Cheese, Whey, Butter, and Dessert/Yoghurt.” Final Report to Dairy Research and Development Corporation, Sydney Australia.
Ongmongkolkul, A. (2001). "Life Cycle Assessment of Paperboard Packaging Produced in Medium-Sized Factories in Thailand." Master’s Thesis, Asian Institute of Technology (AIT).
Saouter, E., et al. (2001). “The Effect of Compact Formulations on the Environmental Profile of Northern European Granular Laundry Detergents, Part I: Environmental Risk Assessment (PDF).” (10 pp, 120 KB) Int. J. LCA, 6: 1-10.
Simonson, M., et al. (2001). “Fire-LCA Model: Cables Case Study (PDF).” (131 pp, 2.12 MB) Brandforsk Project 703-991, SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, SP Fire Technology, SP Report 2001:22.
Talve, S. (2001). “Life Cycle Assessment of a Basic Lager Beer (PDF).” (6 pp, 1.04 MB) Int. J. LCA, 6, 5: 293–298.
Unilever HPC – Europe. (2001). “Machine Dishwash Developments, Steps Toward a More Sustainable Future (http://www.unilever.com/Images/dishwash_tcm3-4574_tcm13-40199.pdf).”
Unilever HPC – Europe. (2001). “Unit Dose, A Sustainability Step for Fabrics Liquids (PDF).” (6 pp, MB).
Ziegler, F., et al. (2001). “Environmental Assessment of Seafood With a Life-Cycle Perspective, A Case Study of Frozen Cod Product.” Licentiatavhandling, Göteborg.
Beer, T., et al. (2000). "Life Cycle Emissions Analysis of Alternative Fuels for Heavy Vehicles: Stage 1.” CSIRO Atmospheric Research Report C/0411/1.1/F2 to the Australian Greenhouse Office.
Carlsson-Kanyama, A. and M. Faist. (2000). “Energy Use in the Food Sector: A Data Survey (PDF).” (36 pp, 136 KB) Environmental Strategies Research Group/Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.
Cederberg, C., and B. Mattsson. (2000). “Life Cycle Assessment of Milk Production – A Comparison of Conventional and Organic Farming.” J. Cleaner Production, 8, 1: 49–60. Abstract
Citherlet, S., F. Di Guglielmo, and J-B Gay. (2000). “Window and Advanced Glazing Systems Life Cycle Assessment.” Energy and Buildings, 32: 225–234.
Cowell, S. and R. Clift. (2000). “A Methodology for Assessing Soil Quantity and Quality in Life Cycle Assessment.” J. Cleaner Production, 8: 321–331.
Ekvall, T. and G. Finnveden. (2000). “The Application of Life Cycle Assessment to Integrated Solid Waste Management: Part 2 – Perspectives on Energy and Material Recovery From Paper.” Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 78, 4: 288–294. Abstract
Finnveden, G., et al. (2000). “Life Cycle Assessments of Energy From Solid Waste (PDF).” (214 pp, 2.46 MB) fms 137, FOA-B-00-00622-222-SE, Stockholm University.
Huijbregts, M.A.J., et al. (2000). “Priority Assessment of Toxic Substances in Life Cycle Assessment, Part I: Calculation of Toxicity Potentials for 181 Substances With the Nested Multimedia Fate, Exposure, and Effects Model USES-LCA.” Chemosphere, 41, 4: 541–573. Abstract
Jungbluth, N. (2000). “Environmental Impacts of Organic Products in a Life Cycle Perspective.” Presentation, IFOAM 2000, The World Grows Organic, 1st International Seminar Organic Food Processing, pp. 31-42.
Landfield, A. and V. Karra. (2000). “Life Cycle Assessment of a Rock Crusher.” Resources, Conservation, and Recycling, 28, 3-4: 207–217. Abstract
LCI Report for the International Primary Aluminum Institute. (2000). " Life Cycle Inventory of the Worldwide Aluminum Industry With Regard to Energy Consumption and Emissions of Greenhouse Gases, Part 1: Automotive (PDF) https://stats.world-aluminium.org/iai/publications/documents/full_report.pdf.” (146 pp, 540 KB)
Sampattagul, S. (2000) “Life Cycle Assessment of Commercial Cabinet Refrigerator.” Chiangmai University.
Shanahan H., A. Carlsson-Kanyama, and M. Pipping Ekström. (2000). “Foods and Environmental Impact to Increase Household Capacity for Making Informed Decisions.” Presentation, 45th International Federation of Home Economics Congress 2000, Accra, Ghana, July 24–29, and INES2000 Workshop on Sustainable Consumption, Stockholm, Sweden, June.
Spath, P.L. and M.K. Mann. (2000). “Life Cycle Assessment of a Natural Gas Combined-Cycle Power Generation System (PDF).” (56 pp, 764 KB) National Renewable Energy Laboratory, NREL/TP-570-27715.
Unilever HPC – Europe. (2000). “Tablet Detergents, Toward a More Sustainable Future (PDF).” (6 pp, 406 KB)
Van Berkel, R. (2000). "Life Cycle Assessment for Environmental Improvement of Minerals Production.” Presentation, Minerals Council of Australia Environmental Workshop, Curtin University of Technology, November. Abstract
Weidema, B.P. and M.J.G. Meeusen. “Agricultural Data for Life Cycle Assessments.” Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), The Hague.
Werder, M. and A. Steinfeld. (2000). “Life Cycle Assessment of the Conventional and Solar Thermal Production of Zinc and Synthesis Gas (PDF).” (15 pp, 232 KB) Energy, 25: 395–409.
Williams, E.A., et al. (2000). “Material and Process Selection Methodology: A Case Study of Laminated Car Windscreen.” Presentation, 7th SETAC LCA Case Studies Symposium, Brussels, Belgium.
Conway-Schempf, N. (1999). “Case Study: Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment of Asphalt Versus Steel-Reinforced Concrete for Pavement Construction (PDF).” (15 pp, 60 KB). Carnegie Mellon University.
Dennison, F.J., et al. (1999). “Life Cycle Assessment: Comparing Strategic Options for the Mains Infrastructure – Part 1” Water Science and Technology, 39, 10-11: 315–319. Abstract
Diers, A., H.C. Langowski, et al. (1999). LCA Study on Vacuum-Packed Roasted Coffee. Ecomed Publishers. Abstract
Finnveden, G. (1999). “Methodological Aspects of Life Cycle Assessment of Integrated Solid Waste Management Systems.” Conservation and Recycling, 26, 3-4: 173–187.
Huijbregts, M.A.J. (1999). “Ecotoxicological Effect Factors for the Terrestrial Environment in the Frame of LCA (http://www.leidenuniv.nl/interfac/cml/ssp/projects/lca2/terrestriallca.pdf).” (22 pp, 64 KB) University of Amsterdam.
Huijbregts, M.A.J. (1999). “Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Acidifying and Eutrophying Air Pollutants, Calculation of Equivalency Factors With RAINS-LCS (http://www.leidenuniv.nl/interfac/cml/ssp/projects/lca2/report_mh_iiasa2.pdf).” (40 pp, 124 KB) (draft version) University of Amsterdam.
Krömer, S., et al. (1999). “Life Cycle Assessment of a Car Tire (PDF).” (44 pp, 484 KB) Continental AG, Hannover, Germany.
Mattsson, B. (1999). “Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Agricultural Food Production.” SIK Report No. 660, ISBN 91-576-5734-3.
Nielsen, P.H. and J.H. Lassen. (1999.) “Life Cycle Assessment – An Integrated Tool in the Development of an Environmentally Friendly Shelf.” Presentation, International Symposium, Hainan, China.
Teller, Ph., S. Denis, R. Renzoni, and A. Germain. (1999). “Comparison Between the Incineration and the Co-Combustion In Cement Plants of Industrial Wastes Using a Life Cycle Approach (PDF).” (4 pp, 160 KB) Presentation, 7th LCA Case Studies Symposium SETAC, Europe.
Blanchard, S. and P. Reppe. (1998). “Life Cycle Analysis of a Residential Home in Michigan (PDF).” (71 pp, 832 KB) Report No. 1998-5, Master’s Project, University of Michigan.
Cederberg, C. and B. Mattson. (1998). “Life Cycle Assessment of Milk Production – A Comparison of Conventional and Organic Farming." Journal of Cleaner Production, 8, 1: 49–60. Abstract
Dennison F.J., et al. (1998). “Assessing Management Options for Wastewater Treatment Works in the Context of Life Cycle Assessment.” Water and Science Technology, 38, 11: 23–30. Abstract
Dones, R., and R. Frischknecht. (1998). “Life-Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems: Results of Swiss Studies on Energy Chains.” Prog. Photovolt. Res. Appl., 6, 2: 117–125. Abstract
Jönsson, and C.T. Hogskola. (1998). “Life Cycle Assessment of Building Products, Case Studies and Methodology.” Chalmers University of Technology. Abstract
MacLean, H. and L.B. Lave. (1998). “A Life Cycle Model of an Automobile: Resource Use and Environmental Discharges in the Production and Use Phases.” Environmental Science and Technology, 322A–330A.
Seppala, J., et al. (1998). “Forest Industry and the Environment: A Life Cycle Assessment Study From Finland (PDF).” (19 pp, 432 KB) Resources, Conservation, and Recycling, 23: 87–105.
Sheehan, J., et al. (1998). “Life Cycle Inventory of Biodiesel and Petroleum Diesel for Use in an Urban Bus (PDF).” (314 pp, 1.82 MB) A Joint Study Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Energy, Final Report, NREL/SR-580-24089 UC Category 1503.
Sullivan, J.L., et al. (1998). “Life Cycle Inventory of a Generic U.S. Family Sedan, Overview of Results USCAR AMP Project.” SAE Technical Paper 982160. Abstract
“Comparing Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Different Energy Sources, A Summary of Findings From Stage One of the Coal in a Sustainable Society Project (PDF).” (4 pp, 148 KB) Australian Coal Association.
Bentley West Management Consultants. “Socio-Economic Impact of the Proposed Plastic Bag Regulations. http://www.nedlac.org.za/research/fridge-studies/plasticbag.aspx” Fund for Research into Industrial Development, Growth and Equity (FRIDGE).
Claus, M.J., W.R. Shepherd, and B. Wayne. “Life Cycle Assessment of Environmental Impact of United States Dollar Note and Coin (PDF).” (13 pp, 44 KB) Undergraduate Thesis, Michigan State University.
Hes, D. “The Olympic Stadium Analyzed Using the DPWS Tool.” Centre for Design at RMIT University, based on information published by M. Janssen and B. Buckland, and communications with M. Janssen.
Trusty, W. B. and J. K. Meil. “Building Life Cycle Assessment: Residential Case Study (PDF).” (11 pp,36 KB) ATHENA Sustainable Materials Institute, Canada.
Wibberley, L. “Coal in a Sustainable Society (PDF).” (4 pp. 40 KB).
Carlson, R. (2006). "Framework for Structuring Information for Environmental Management of Industrial Systems. (116 pp, 2.13 MB) Thesis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden. Abstract
Hendrickson, C., L. Lave, and H.S. Matthews. (2006). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of Goods and Services: An Input-Output Approach. Resources for the Future, Washington, DC. Abstract
Bauman, H. and A-M. Tillman. (2004). The Hitch Hiker's Guide to LCA: An Orientation in Life Cycle Assessment Methodology and Application. Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden. Abstract
Franklin Associates (A Division of ERG Prairie Village, KS). (2004). “Life Cycle Inventory of Packing Options for Shipment of Retail Mail-Order Soft Goods, Final Peer-Reviewed Report (PDF).” (518 pp, 2.1 MB) Prepared for Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DWQ) and U.S. EPA Environmentally Preferable Purchasing Program
Sonnemann, G., et al. (2003). Integrated Life-Cycle and Risk Assessment for Industrial Processes (Advanced Methods in Resource and Waste Management. CRC Press. Abstract
Guinee, J.B. (ed.). (2002). Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment, Operational Guide to the ISO Standards. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Abstract
Nicholas, M.J., et al. (2000). “Determination of ‘Best Available Techniques’ for Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control: A Life Cycle Approach.” IChemE Trans. Part B, 78, 3: 193–203.
Frankl, P., F. Rubik et al. (1999). Life Cycle Assessment in Industry and Business: Adoption Patterns, Applications and Implications. Springer Verlag. Abstract
Hofstetter, P. (1999). Perspectives in Life Cycle Impact Assessment: A Structured Approach to Combine Models of the Technosphere, Ecosphere, and Valuesphere. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Abstract
United Nations Environmental Programme. (1999). Towards a Global Use of Life Cycle Assessment. United Nations Publications. Abstract
Graedel, T.E. (1998). Streamlined Life-Cycle Assessment. Prentice Hall. Abstract
Ciambrone, D.F. (1997). Environmental Life Cycle Analysis. Lewis Publishers, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida. Abstract
Jensen, A.A., et al. (1997). “Life Cycle Assessment (LCA): A Guide to Approaches, Experiences, and Information Sources (PDF).” (116 pp, 508 KB) Report to the European Environment Agency, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Seppala, J. (1997). Decision Analysis as a Tool for Life Cycle Impact Assessment. Finnish Environment Institute. Helsinki, Finland. Abstract (PDF) http://www.imamu.edu.sa/topics/IT/IT%206/Decision%20Analysis%20as%20a%20Tool%20for%20Life%20Cycle%20Impact%20Assessment.pdf (4 pp, 60 KB)
Braunschweig, A. and S. Schaltegger. (eds.). (1996). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) – quo vadie. Birkhauser Publishing, Basil, Boston, Berlin.
Curran, M.A. (1996). Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. McGraw-Hill, New York.
International Institute for Sustainable Development. (1996). Global Green Standards: ISO 14000 and Sustainable Development (http://www.iisd.org/pdf/globlgrn.pdf). (106 pp, 464 KB) Winnipeg, Canada.
Lindfors L.G., et al. (1995). “Nordic Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment.” Report # Nord 1995:20. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Van den Berg, N.W, et al. (1995). Beginning LCA : A Guide Into Environmental Life Cycle Assessment. National Reuse of Waste Research Programme, Netherlands.
Keoleian, G.A., et al. (1994). Product Life Cycle Assessment to Reduce Health Risks and Environmental Impacts. Noyes Data Corporation, New Jersey. Abstract
Elkington, J., et al. (1993). The LCA Sourcebook: A European business Guide to Life Cycle Assessment. London, England.
Ryding, S.O. (ed.). (1992). Environmental Management Handbook : The Holistic Approach from Problems to Strategies. IOS Press, Inc. Abstract
Steen, B. and S.O. Ryding. (1992). The EPS Enviro-Accounting Method. Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Göteborg, Sweden. Abstract
ISO 14040 - Environmental Management: Life Cycle Assessment – Principles and Framework. Stadler-Burgess.
SETAC documents can be obtained through the following:
Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)
1010 North 12th Ave.
Pensacola, FL 32501-3367
Curran, M.A., and J.A. Todd. (1999). “Streamlined Life Cycle Assessment: A Final Report From the SETAC North America Streamlined LCA Workgroup.” SETAC and SETAC Foundation for Environmental Education, Inc.
Seventh LCA Case Studies Symposium. SETAC - Europe 1999
Barnthouse, L. (1998). “Life Cycle Impact Assessment: The State of the Art.” 2nd edition, SETAC.
Allen, D.T., et al. (ed.) (1997). “Public Policy Applications of Life Cycle Assessment.” SETAC.
Christiansen, K. (ed.). (1997). “Simplifying LCA: Just a Cut?” SETAC – Europe.
Fifth LCA Symposium for Case Studies. SETAC – Europe 1997.
Sixth LCA Symposium for Case Studies. SETAC – Europe 1997.
Udo de Haes, H.A. (ed.). (1996). “Towards a Methodology for Life Cycle Impact Assessment.” SETAC – Europe, Brussels, Belgium.
Huppes, G. and F. Schneider. (1994). “Allocation in LCA.” SETAC – Europe.
Life Cycle Assessment Data Quality: A Conceptual Framework.” SETAC 1994.
Udo de Haes, H.A. (ed.). (1994). “Integrating Impact Assessment Into LCA.” SETAC - Europe.
Consoli, F., et al. (1993). “Guidelines for Life Cycle Assessment: A Code of Practice.” In: Proceedings Workshop in Sesimbra, Portugal. SETAC.
Fava, J., et al. (1993). “A Conceptual Framework For Life Cycle Impact Assessment.” Workshop Report. Sandestin, Florida: SETAC and SETAC Foundation for Environmental Education, Inc.
Life Cycle Assessment. SETAC – Europe, Brussels, Belgium, 1992.
Fava J., et al. (eds.). (1991). “A Technical Framework for Life Cycle Assessment.” SETAC and SETAC Foundation for Environmental Education, Inc., Washington, DC.
ISO Standards can be obtained through the International Organization for Standardization's catalog. In addition, ISO 14000 provides background information on ISO 14000, brochures, and ordering information for ISO publications and standards.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) / Technical Committee 207 on Environmental Management - This site provides information on ISO TC 207 and its subcommittees, ISO 14000, and news and articles related to LCA.
The ISO 14000 Information Center – This site contains current events, news articles, and resources.
Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Examples of Application of ISO 14041 to Goal and Scope Definition and Inventory Analysis (ISO 14049:2000).
Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Life Cycle Impact Assessment (ISO 14042:2000).
Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Life Cycle Interpretation (ISO 14043:2000).
Environmental Management - Environmental Performance Evaluation - Guidelines (ISO 14031:1999).
Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Goal and Scope Definition and Inventory Analysis (ISO 14041:1998).
Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Principles and Framework (ISO 14040:1997).
Environmental Management - Life Cycle Assessment - Life Cycle Assessment Data Documentation Format (ISO 14048).
The Canadian standards can be ordered from:
Canadian Standards Association
178 Rexdale Blvd.
Canada M9W 1R3
Design for Environment, Standard CAN/CSA-Z762, 1995.
Life Cycle Assessment, Standard CAN/CSA-Z760, 1994.
Life Cycle Review (supporting CAN/CSA-Z760), 1994.
Environmental Impact Assessment Review - Environmental Impact Assessment Review is a refereed, interdisciplinary journal serving an international audience of practitioners, policy makers, and academics. This audience assesses the environmental impact of policy, projects, processes, and products, and makes decisions based upon these assessments.
Management of Environmental Quality - This journal has become a highly respected international forum for the serious debate of environmental issues and their effect on human health. EMH published a special edition on topics presented at the InLCA Conference in April 2000.
The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment - The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment was the first journal devoted entirely to LCA. Some documents are available in PDF format. LCA Global Village is a free discussion forum on LCA topics. IJLCA also published a special edition with selected papers from the InLCA Conference.
Journal of Cleaner Production - The Journal of Cleaner Production serves as an interdisciplinary, international forum for the exchange of information on the technologies, concepts, and policies designed to help ensure progress towards sustainable societies. The journal includes papers on source reduction, environmental management initiatives, cleaner production methods and tools (including life cycle assessment and product improvement analyses and legislation), and policy and regulation.
Journal of Industrial Ecology - The Journal of Industrial Ecology is an international, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary quarterly designed to foster both understanding and practice in the emerging field of industrial ecology. The journal addresses a series of related topics: material and energy flows studies; life cycle planning, design, and assessment; design for the environment; product stewardship; and eco-efficiency.
The list of software tools and databases below does not indicate any form of endorsement. See disclaimer at the top of this page.
Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other Environmental Impacts (TRACI) – EPA's TRACI allows the examination of the potential for impacts associated with the raw material usage and chemical releases resulting from the processes involved in producing a product. The complete software and user's guide can be downloaded from the web link provided.
The Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (APME) - APME publishes annual data on the consumption and recovery of plastics used in the main application sector of packaging, building and construction, automotive, and electronic.
The Impact Estimator for Buildings – The ATHENA Institute's Impact Estimator for Buildings allows architects, engineers, and researchers to get life cycle assessment (LCA) answers about conceptual designs of new buildings or renovations to existing buildings from this tool. The Estimator lets you assess the environmental implications of industrial, institutional, office, and both multi-unit and single family residential designs. Where relevant, it also distinguishes between owner-occupied and rental facilities. The Estimator puts the environment on an equal footing with other more traditional design criteria at the conceptual design stage of a building project. The Estimator incorporates the institute's life cycle inventory databases, covering more than 90 structural and envelope materials. It simulates over 1,000 different assembly combinations.
BEES 3.0 – Developed by the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Building and Fire Research Laboratory, the BEES (Building for Environmental and Economic Sustainability) software can be used for balancing the environmental and economic performance of building products. Version 3.0 of the Windows-based decision-support software, aimed at designers, builders, and product manufacturers, includes actual environmental and economic performance data for 65 building products. BEES 3.0 can be downloaded from the website link provided above.
The ecoinvent Centre – This is the Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories' central database of LCI data and life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) methods data.
ECO-it 1.3 - PR Consultants' ECO-it comes with over 200 eco-indicator 99 scores for commonly used materials such as metals, plastics, paper, board, and glass, as well as production, transport, energy, and waste treatment processes. It calculates the environmental load of a product and shows which parts of the product contribute most. A demo version can be downloaded from the website link provided above.
EcoScan 3.0 – This software tool by TNO Industrial Technology analyzes the environmental impact and cost of products. It can be used by managers and engineers who implement EcoDesign in real-life product development. Abstract
Economic Input-Output Life Cycle Assessment – This website by Green Design Initiative of Carnegie Mellon allows users to estimate the overall environmental impacts from producing a certain dollar amount of any of 500 commodities or services in the United States. It provides rough guidance on the relative impacts of different types of products, materials, services, or industries with respect to resource use and emissions throughout the United States.
GaBi 4 Software System and Databases – This software solution by PE Europe GmbH and IKP University of Stuttgart has different versions from educational to professional use of LCA to evaluate life cycle environmental, cost, and social profiles of products, processes, and technologies. It contains comprehensive GaBi databases with worldwide coverage, as well as Ecoinvent data. A demo version is available for download.
GREET Model- The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies fuel-cycle model called GREET (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) allows researchers to evaluate various engine and fuel combinations on a consistent fuel-cycle basis.
IDEMAT 2005 – This tool by Delft University of Technology is used for material selections in the design process. It provides a database with technical information about materials, processes, and components, and allows the user to compare information.
IVAM LCA Data 4.0 – IVAM's Environmental Research database is used for environmental life cycle assessment (LCA). It consists of about 1,000 processes, leading to more than 300 materials. The data can be used for LCA applications in various sectors.
KCL-ECO 4.0 – This tool by KCL can be used to apply LCA to complicated systems with many modules and flows. It includes allocation, impact assessment (characterization, normalization, and weighting), and graphing features.
LCAPIX - The LCAPIX software by KM Limited combines LCA and Activity Based Costing (ABC) to help businesses ensure environmental compliance, while ensuring sustained profitability. It allows for a quantitative measurement that can indicate the potential burden of any product. A demo version can be downloaded from the website link provided above.
Life-Cycle Inventory Database - The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's LCI Database is publicly available and contains data modules for commonly used materials and processes, such as primary fuel production and combustion, electricity generation, and transformation processes.
REGIS – This software tool by Sinum is used for corporate ecobalances and the improvement of corporate environmental performance according to ISO14031. A demo version can be downloaded from the website link provided above.
SimaPro 7 - PR Consultants' SimaPro is a professional LCA software tool that contains several impact assessment methods and several inventory databases that can be edited and expanded without limitation. It can compare and analyze complex products with complex life cycles. A demo version can be downloaded from the website link provided above.
SPINE@CPM – CPM's Competence Centre for Environmental Assessment of Product and Material Systems at Chalmers University of Technology is a database contains detailed information on all types of freight transports, energyware production, production of selected materials, and waste management alternatives.
SPOLD Data Exchange Software – This software the Society for Promotion of Life-cycle Assessment is used to create, edit, import, and export data in the SPOLD '99 format. It can be downloaded from the website link provided above.
Umberto – This software by the Institute for Environmental Informatics, Hamburg, serves to visualize material and energy flow systems. Data are taken from external information systems or are newly modeled and calculated.