Risk Management Research
USEPA. (2005). "Multipollutant Emission Control Technology Options for Coal-Fired Power Plants." Publication No. EPA-600/R-05/034.
The report presents and analyzes various existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multi-emission [sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), and mercury (Hg)] reductions. Summary descriptions are included of 27 multi-emission control technologies that have reached a stage of development beyond pilot scale. These can broadly be divided into environmental control options (post-combustion controls), advanced power generation options, and power plant upgrading and operating options. For each evaluated technology, the report includes background information, applicability, status of commercialization, any secondary environmental impacts of the technologies, identification of primary process variables that impact performance relative to NOX, SO2, and Hg, as well as capital and operation and maintenance costs. Fifteen of the 27 technology options listed are in the commercial or early commercial stage. However, nearly all the technology options in the commercial stage are proven SO2 control technologies, which also appear to remove Hg. Some technologies, such as Advanced Silicate and Confined Zone Dispersion, have been tested in either the pilot or demonstration scale in the early phase of the U.S. Department of Energyıs Clean Coal Technology program, but have not been adopted by industry. Some of these technologies could become more cost-effective as environmental requirements evolve. Activated coke, electro-catalytic oxidation, EnviroScrub, and the combination of flue gas desulfurization with LoTOx or selective catalytic reduction exhibit the potential to significantly control (above 80 percent) SO2, NOXs, and Hg. Although the report is limited to addressing technologies with a certain level of maturity, a rapid technological evolution is expected in the development and commercialization of several multi-emission control technologies not addressed in this report.
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