Jump to main content or area navigation.

Contact Us

Risk Management Research


Smith, J. E. AND R. S. Reimers. (2006). "USA’s Practices for Controlling Pathogens in Biosolids." In Proceedings, Australian Water Association's Biosolids Specialty III Conference, Melbourne, AUSTRALIA, June 07 - 08, 2006. Australian Water Association, Artarmon, Australia, 43-44.

The U.S.A. initially established regulations for the management of sewage sludge in 1979 and updated them in 1993. They are briefly discussed with emphasis on the rationale for the procedures chosen to disinfect sludge and control its vector attractiveness. By controlling pathogenic microorganisms humans are protected from coming into contact with them via biosolids exposure pathways that include inhalation and ingestion of aerosols, ingestion of contaminated soil or water, and consumption of contaminated crops or crops grown in contaminated soil.


James E Smith JR


You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page.
See EPA's PDF page to learn more.

Risk Management Research: Air and Climate Change Research | Water Research | Ecosystems Restoration Research | Land Research | Technology: Sustainable Technologies Research, Environmental Technology Verification Program (ETV), and Technology Assessments

Jump to main content.