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Accomplishments & Activities
Aging Water Infrastructure

The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) Research Program has produced a variety of outputs since its start in 2007. Additional Information can be found at the AWI Research Program web site.

Congressional Briefings

Congressman Steve Driehaus and District Director Steve Brinker (Ohio District 1) - U.S. House of Representatives.  Test and Evaluation Facility, Cincinnati, Ohio, December 7, 2009. Briefing was on NRMRL’s AWI Research Program, the Shepard Creek Project, and NHSRC’s Water Security projects.  A tour of the Test & Evaluation Facility was given following the briefing.

The U.S. Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources (Staffers).  Washington, D.C., November 13, 2009. Staffers were briefed on NRMRL’s AWI Research Program.

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Cooperative Agreements

Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century (Solicitation EPA-ORD-NRMRL-CI-08-03) - Awarded to the Water Environment Research Foundation, July 9, 2009. This cooperative agreement was awarded to conduct research that will produce, evaluate, and summarize performance, cost, and value data and information about innovative technologies (i.e., systems, devices, procedures) that will assist the user community to reduce the cost and improve the effectiveness of design, operation, maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement of aging/failing wastewater, stormwater, and drinking water conveyance and treatment infrastructure. The specific project team will be determined at award, and the specific projects will be determined post-award based on the proposal and an assessment of research progress and current needs and priorities. The intent is to fund the cooperative agreement in the amount of $2.5 million per year for each of the four years, for a total amount of $10 million. Through this cooperative agreement, ORD will increase its recognition as an active leader and supporter of research to seek innovative solutions to problems posed by aging water infrastructure.  This major cooperative agreement will provide ORD with a substantial increase in research capability in scientific, technical and practical expertise; hours; facilities; equipment; and resources to meet the goals of the AWI Research Program. (See fact sheet for additional information).

Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure (Solicitation EPA-ORD-NRMRL-CI-08-09) - Awarded to the University of Nebraska at Lincoln (2009). The objective of this cooperative agreement is to produce, evaluate, and summarize the cost, performance, and long-term reliability of coupling energy and water conservation technologies, modeling capabilities, and decision-support tools to reduce and optimize energy consumption in the treatment, conveyance, and use of water while utilizing water in the most efficient manner possible and in turn, increasing water supplies by virtue of reusing wastewater, stormwater, and preventing excess runoff.  This project will focus on the methods and the capability of new construction to achieve water and energy independence in a sustainable approach. As part of the AWI Research Program, this research project, not only supports EPA’s Office of Water’s Sustainable Water Infrastructure Initiative, but also must fulfill its responsibilities toward the Global Climate Change, Water Quality, and Drinking Water Program Offices. (See fact sheet for additional information).

Extending the Nation's Water Supply: Overcoming Barriers to Innovative Water Infrastructures- Awarded to the University of North Carolina, 2009 (EPA Workshop was held February 3-4, 2010). The overall aim of this workshop, Water Reuse and Dual Systems for Potable and Non-potable Water Supply, is to move the Nation toward the goal of sustainable water infrastructure by optimizing the extent of water reuse. The workshop consists of about forty invited speakers and participants that are experts in this area of science and technology, and as such, the workshop is not an open-ended event.  All of the invited guests will participate either as speakers for the plenary sessions or interact in the break out group discussions, and will debate on assigned questions from topics generated by the plenary sessions.  Consensus on key issues will form the basis for preparation of a draft report, which will be reviewed by the attendees after the workshop and before submitting it to EPA. 

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Demonstration Sites

Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains - Louisville, KY, (Ongoing studies with an initial demonstration date of June 6 - August 28, 2009).   Municipality Collaborator: Louisville Water Company. This field site demonstrated 13 technologies, at various stages of development and that provided different levels of inspection, on a 76-yr old, 2,500-ft long, 24-in cast iron pipe. Other aspects of the site included the comparison of performance and cost of technologies looking for similar defects; confirmation of measurements by non-destructive technologies with direct measurements; assessment of applicability, limitations, practical difficulties, and cost; and the removal and archiving of pipe segments for future comparative testing using new developing technologies. The demonstration site has continued with the Louisville Water Company for further studies and demonstrations. 

Full-Scale Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control - Kansas City, MO., ongoing project with a start date of 12/31/2007. This demonstration site is collaborative effort between EPA’s ORD and Region 7, and the Kansas City Water Services Department, Tetra Tech, Inc., the University of Alabama-Tuscaloosa, the University of Missouri - Kansas City, the Mid-America Regional Council (MARC), and Bergmann Associates, Inc. This project is a major national demonstration of the integration of green and gray infrastructure for combined sewer overflow (CSO) control in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner.  It will use Kansas City, MO, as a case example.  The project will have a major influence on EPA’s goal to implement green practices across the nation.  Advanced infrastructure design concepts, such as low-impact development (LID) and green solutions (or upland runoff control techniques), are currently being encouraged by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in the national campaign to improve new and existing infrastructure valued in the trillions of dollars. This project involves local and regional efforts to provide the “basis-for-success” of the implementation of Green Solution infrastructure and stormwater management at the neighborhood, watershed, and regional levels.  The project will demonstrate the methodology, including model support, for identifying where and how Green Solutions will be implemented within Kansas City, Missouri.  (See fact sheet for additional information).

Porous Pavement Parking Lot Demonstration Site - Edison Environmental Center - Edison, NJ. - Under construction (Construction was completed October 27, 2009). This demonstration site is a joint effort between EPA’s Office of Administration, Region 2, and the Office of Research and Development, and the study will continue for ten years.EPA has installed a full-scale 110-space porous pavement parking lot that is instrumented and monitored for a number of water quantity and quality parameters. Various types of porous pavement are commercially available for the control of stormwater runoff; the demonstration will provide valuable information for improved design and performance. This project will allow EPA to provide a scientifically defensible estimate to municipalities on the performance of three permeable surfaces. The study will monitor side-by-side porous asphalt, porous concrete, and permeable interlocking concrete paver systems. There are three parking rows, each one a different porous pavement type, the driving lanes of the lot will be conventional asphalt. The porous pavement parking areas have sections lined with an impermeable liner to collect the porous pavement effluent and sections that allow the effluent to infiltrate to the underlying soil. Each monitored parking row has four impermeable and five permeable sections for each porous pavement type, which will allow for statistical analyses of collected data. The parameters that will be monitored include: volume, solids, microorganisms, nutrients, metals, and semi-volatile organic compounds. The lot, which was open for use on October 28, 2009, will not only function as a research site, it will also serve as a highly used parking lot for Edison Environmental Center staff and visitors. In addition, the lot will serve as a demonstration site for other federal facilities and will be used as a public outreach tool displaying green stormwater management.
(See fact sheet for additional information).

Green Infrastructure Demonstration Site – Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center (AWBERC), Cincinnati, Ohio. Design guidelines were issued January, 2009, Construction has not started.This demonstration site is a collaborative effort with the Greater Cincinnati Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD), the University of Cincinnati, the City of Cincinnati Parks Department, and other stakeholders. Project construction is expected to begin in the Fall of 2010. This project will evaluate the applicability of a wide range of green infrastructure practices for managing wet weather flows from EPA’s AWBERC campus to potentially reduce both the volume and frequency of CSOs from the Greater Cincinnati Metropolitan Sewer District (MSD) collection system. Working cooperatively with MSD, the University of Cincinnati, the City of Cincinnati Parks Department, and other stakeholders, EPA researchers will conduct a detailed site assessment to determine the most appropriate green infrastructure practices for the AWBERC campus. Once the optimal mix of green infrastructure practices is selected, EPA researchers will design the practices for application at the site. An extensive, long-term monitoring program will follow construction/implementation of the selected green infrastructure practices to determine unit performance and overall site effectiveness.

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Workshops 

EPA Workshop: Hands-on Training Workshop on System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) – Region 10, Seattle, Washington, April 6-7, 2010. This hands-on training workshop provided an overview of SUSTAIN and the typical application process; descriptions of the major system modules; and hands-on training and guidance in using the SUSTAIN framework. The workshop was intended for watershed management professionals who desire to learn to use and apply the state-of-the-art SUSTAIN framework for evaluation of stormwater management options and decision-making.

EPA Workshop: One-Day Workshop on System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) – Region 9, Los Angeles, California, April 5, 2010. This workshop provided an overview of SUSTAIN and the typical application process; descriptions of the major system modules; and hands-on training and guidance in using the SUSTAIN framework. The workshop was intended for watershed management professionals who desire to learn to use and apply the state-of-the-art SUSTAIN framework for evaluation of stormwater management options and decision-making.

EPA Workshop:  EPA Hands-on Training Workshop on System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration (SUSTAIN) - Wheaton, Illinois, March 22-23, 2010. This hands-on training workshop provided an overview of SUSTAIN and the typical application process; descriptions of the major system modules; and hands-on training and guidance in using the SUSTAIN framework. The workshop was intended for watershed management professionals who desire to learn to use and apply the state-of-the-art SUSTAIN framework for evaluation of stormwater management options and decision-making.

Water Reuse Workshop: Extending the Nation's Water Supply: Overcoming Barriers to Innovative Water Infrastructures - Chapel Hill, NC, February 3-4, 2010. This workshop was a cooperative agreement between ORD and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.  The overall aim of this workshop is to move the nation toward the goal of sustainable water infrastructure by optimizing the extent of water reuse.  About 45 experts on water reuse drawn from universities, water utilities, consulting engineering and government participated.  The results of the workshop will provide the user community with technical data, guidance, and decision support tools that will improve their understanding and capability to identify, select, and implement appropriate innovative approaches for water reclamation and sustainability.  A final EPA report is expected in the Fall of 2010.

Stormwater Management Workshop:  EPA Regional Science Workshop on Stormwater Management - Edison, New Jersey, October 20-22, 2009. This workshop provided a great opportunity for collaboration between EPA’s ORD and Regions 1 and 3. Topics discussed included: National Research Council's report, the new Administration's serious interest in stormwater management, issuance of next-generation action plan for Chesapeake Bay, and forthcoming issuance of new stormwater guidelines and permits. A major focus of this workshop was discussion on identifying future research needs, with input from all speakers, panelists, and attendees.  (See workshop proceedings for additional information).

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Webinars

EPA SUSTAIN Webcast: System for Stormwater Treatment and Analysis INtegration - March 11, 2010.  Presenter:  Dennis Lai. This course was a two-hour webinar on the SUSTAIN software. SUSTAIN is a decision support system for placement of BMPs at strategic locations in urban watersheds based on cost and effectiveness.  It is developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. under contract with and a close involvement by EPA.  SUSTAIN, an ArcGIS-based evaluation and decision-support framework, is designed for analysis and determination of total maximum daily load (TMDL), urban watershed planning, source water protection programs, and combined sewer overflow volume reduction.  An overview of SUSTAIN, descriptions of the major system modules, and an example application in using the SUSTAIN framework was provided.
There were a total of 1,024 participants, including a good number of international participants from all continents. The workshop was free of charge, and a certificate of participation was sent upon the successful completion.

WaterCorr Webinar Series 2009:  EPA Lead and Copper Corrosion Research Program Update - January 12, 2010.   Presenter:  Darren Lytle. WATERCORR was a five part web series that addresses drinking water and wastewater system sustainability, and provides the tools to make informed decisions on how to protect our existing assets and prolong the life of our water and wastewater infrastructure through corrosion prevention and mitigation practices.  The Lead and Copper Rule was established to reduce lead and copper in consumer's tap water. As a result a great deal of work has been conducted by EPA researchers, and others, in support of the Rule. Despite that work, there are still needs and related issues that are not well understood and require further research. This presentation highlighted the latest in EPA research activities associated with lead and copper corrosion and solubility research.

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Tools & Technology

Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox.  The SSOAP Toolbox is complete and is available on the web as of September, 2009 (EPA/600/C-09/007). The SSOAP Toolbox contains a suite of computer software tools to perform capacity analysis and quantify rainfall-derived infiltration and inflow (RDII) in sanitary sewer systems.   The tools include the software for database management, RDII analysis, RDII hydrograph generation, SSOAP-SWMM5 interface, and sewer flow routing using SWMM5.  The SSOAP Toolbox can serve as the foundation of wastewater collection system infrastructure research, among several applications, for analyzing monitored flow data to prioritize where to inspect and monitor and to assess the performance of rehabilitation activities.  In addition, it will support program offices in adding the CMOM requirements to the NPDES permits and help municipalities identify SSO problems and develop a sensible and more cost-effective control plan to meet their NPDES permit requirements.

System for Urban Stormwater Treatment and Analysis Integration (SUSTAIN) - A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality. The SUSTAIN model is complete and is available on the web as of October 20, 2009 (EPA/600/F-09/005). SUSTAIN is a decision support system designed to facilitate the selection and placement of best management practices and low impact development techniques at strategic locations in urban watersheds.  It was developed to assist stormwater management professionals in developing implementation plans for flow and pollution control to protect source waters and meet water quality goals.  From an understanding of the needs of the user community, SUSTAIN was designed for use by watershed and stormwater practitioners to develop, evaluate, and select optimal BMP combinations at various watershed scales on the basis of cost and effectiveness. 

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Publications

Journal Articles 

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and K. Scheckel. (2009). "The Inhibition of Pb(IV) Oxide Formation in Chlorinated Water by Orthophosphate." Crystal Growth and Design, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 43(17): 6624-6631.

Schock, M. R. and A. M. Sandvig. (2009). "Long-Term Impacts of Orthophosphate Treatment on Copper Levels." Journal of the American Water Works Association, American Water Works Association, Denver, CO, 101(7):71-82.

Gerke, T. L., K. G. Scheckel and M. R. Schock. (2009). "Identification and Distribution of Vanadinite (Pb5(V5+O4)3Cl) in Lead Pipe Corrosion By-Products." Environmental Science & Technology, 43(12): 4412-4418.

Lytle, D.A., C. White, M. N. Nadagouda, and A. Worrall. (2009). "Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Drinking Water." Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165(1): 1234-1238.

Nadagouda, M., Schock, M., Metz, D. H., Desantis, M., Lytle, D. and Welch, M. M. (2009). "Effect of Phosphate Inhibitors on the Formation of Lead Phosphate/Carbonate Nanorods, Microrods and Dendritic Structures." Crystal Growth & Design, 9(4): 1798-1.

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Reports

These reports provide comprehensive reviews into the nature of the challenges that our aging and deteriorating water infrastructure present. They provide information that will help develop national assessments and will provide more regionally focused assessment information.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2009).  "Innovative Approaches for Urban Watershed Wet-Weather Flow Management and Control - State of Technology Review Report." Publication No. EPA/600/R-09/128.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Rowney, A., Pechacek, L., Hulley, M., O'Connor, T. and Roesner, L. (2009).  "Advanced Topics in Wet-Weather Discharge Control." Publication No. EPA/600/R-09/112.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Shoemaker, L.  (2009). "SUSTAIN - A Framework for Placement of Best Management Practices in Urban Watersheds to Protect Water Quality." Publication No. EPA/600/R-09/095.

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Book Chapters

Rowe, A., Borst, M., and O'Connor, T. (2009). "Water Quality, Water Quantity, and Groundwater Effects of Pervious Pavement as a Low Impact Development Installation in Urban Regions." Chapter 14, The Effects of Urbanization on Groundwater: An Engineering Case-based Approach for Sustainable Development. American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA (In Press).

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Newsletter Articles

(2010) "US EPA Tests Permeable Pavements." Interlocking Concrete Pavement Magazine, 17(1): 6-8.

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Fact Sheets

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M. and N. Ashbolt. (2010). "Influence of Disinfectant Residual on Biofilm Development, Microbial Ecology, and Pathogen Fate and Transport in Drinking Water Infrastructure." Publication No. EPA/600/F-10/012.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and J. Neal. (2009). "Advanced Decentralized Water/Energy Network Design for Sustainable Infrastructure (PDF)." (2 pp, 208 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/016.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and M. Schock. (2009). "Analysis of Distribution System and Domestic Service Line Pipe Deposits to Understand Water Treatment/Metal Release Relationships (PDF)." (2 pp, 326 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/014.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and M. Royer. (2009). "Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems (PDF)." (2 pp, 189 215 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/031.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Latham, M.L. and M. Royer. (2009). "Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains (PDF)." (2 pp, 215KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/030.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and D. Lai. (2009). "Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems Using the Sanitary Sewer Overflow Analysis and Planning (SSOAP) Toolbox (PDF)." (2 pp, 242 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/042.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and M. Royer. (2009). "Controlled-Condition Research on Wastewater Collection and Drinking Water Distribution System (PDF)." (2 pp, 370 KB) (2009). Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/029.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and R. Field. (2009). "Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) Control (PDF)." (2 pp, 185 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/039.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and M. Borst. (2009). "Design/Construction of a Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center (PDF)." (2 pp, 271 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/038.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and R. Frederickson. (2009). "Field Verification of New and Innovative Technologies for the Assessment and Rehabilitation of Drinking Water Distribution Systems and Wastewater Collection Systems (PDF)." (2 pp, 185 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/034.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and D. Lai. (2009). "Framework for Placement of BMPs in Urban Watersheds to Protect Source Waters and Meet Water Quality Goals (PDF)." (2 pp, 233 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/043.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.Latham, M.L. and D. Lytle. (2009). "Impact of Water Chemistry on Localized Corrosion of Copper Pitting (PDF)." (2 pp, 640 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/011.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and M. Schock. (2009). "In-house Copper and Lead Solubility/Corrosion Studies (PDF)." (2 pp, 304 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/013.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and M. Royer. (2009). "Innovation and Research for Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century: Cooperative Agreement (PDF)." (2 pp, 485 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/028.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and R. Revetta. (2009). "Molecular Survey of Microbial Communities Involved in Concrete Corrosion in Wastewater Sewer (PDF)." (2 pp, 546 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/012.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and Y.J. Yang. (2009). "Multi-Scale Infrastructure Assessment (PDF)." (2 pp, 205 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/017.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and D.J. Murray. (2009). "Nutrient Control Design Manual (PDF)." (2 pp, 543 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/036.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and D.J. Murray. (2009). "Nutrient Control Seminars (PDF)." (2 pp, 505 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/035.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and Y.J. Yang. (2009). "Pipe Leak Detection Technology Development (PDF)." (2 pp, 190 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/019.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and A. Selvakumar. (2009). "Rehabilitation of Wastewater Collection and Water Distribution Systems (PDF)." (2 pp, 244 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/025.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and R. Field. (2009). "State-of-the-Technology on Advanced Drainage Concepts (PDF)." (2 pp, 288 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/040.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and C. Impellitteri. (2009). "Technical Support to the Drinking Water Distribution System Simulator Research Center - Biofilm Test Loop (PDF)." (2 pp, 187 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/010.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and T. O’Connor. (2009). "Total Water Management (PDF)." (2 pp, 135 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/033.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Latham, M.L. and Y.J. Yang. (2009). "Water Reuse and Soil Column Studies for Alternative Water Resource Development (PDF)." (2 pp, 148 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/018.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). "Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Treatment Technology Evaluation and Development (PDF)." (2 pp, 213 KB) Latham, M.L. and E. Kleiner. Publication No. EPA/600/F-09/015.

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Presentations & Proceedings

Rowe, A., M. Borst, T. O'Connor, and E. Stander. (2010). "Monitoring of the Permeable Pavement Demonstration Site at the Edison Environmental Center." Presented at ASCE/EWRI 2010 International Low Impact Development Conference, San Francisco, CA, April 11 - 16.

Stander, E., M. Borst, T. O’Connor, and A. Rowe. (2010). "Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design." In: Proceedings, 2010 EWRI International LID Conference, San Francisco, CA, April 11 - 14.

Rowe, A., M. Borst, T. O'Connor, and E. Stander. (2010).  "Permeable pavement demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center." Presented at ASCE EWRI International Low Impact Development Conference, San Francisco, CA, April 11 - 14.

Stander, E., A. Rowe, M. Borst, and T. O'Connor. (2010). "Water Quantity and Quality Processes in Urban Wetlands and Green Stormwater Management Practices." Presented at Invited Seminar, Richard Stockton College, Pomona, NJ, Pomona, NJ, March 08.

Lytle, D. A. (2010). "U.S. EPA Lead and Copper Corrosion Research Program Update." Presented at NACE WaterCorr Seminar Web Series, Houston, TX, January 12.

Borst, M., T. O'Connor, A. Rowe, and E. Stander. (2009). "Permeable Pavement Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center." (Poster) Presented at SAB Review, Research Triangle Park, NC, November 10.

Rowe A., M. Borst, T. O'Connor, and E. Stander. (2009). "Permeable pavement demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center". In: Proceedings, International Erosion Control Association Northeast Chapter Annual Conference, Hartford, CT, October 27 - 29.

Stander, E. (2009). "Rain Garden Research at EPA's Urban Watershed Research Facility." Presented at 2009 Conference & Trade Show, Northeast Chapter, International Erosion Control Association, Hartford, CT, October 27 - 28.

Rowe, A., M. Borst, T. O'Connor E. Stander. (2009). "Permeable Pavement Demonstration at the Edison Environmental Center." Presented at 2009 Conference & Trade Show, Northeast Chapter, International Erosion Control Association, Hartford, CT, October 27 - 28.

Pressman, J. G. (2009). "Nitrification in the Drinking Water Distribution System." Presented at Miami University Microbiology Seminar, Oxford, OH, October 28.

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