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Accomplishments & Activities
Climate Change


EPA’s Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment Tool Development and Climate Change Ready Utility Initiative.

Tools & Technology

Modeling Tool for Evaluation of Water Consumption, Wastewater Generation, and CO2 Emission in Corn-to-Ethanol Plant and Drinking Water Adaptation Planning and Engineering.
Collaborator: National Corn to Ethanol Pilot Facility at Southern Illinois University at Edwardsville (SIUE)
Users: Expected prime users are EPA program offices, energy producers and their prime agencies
This online tool is an energy and mass balance model standardized against a typical dry mill process. It calculates water usage, waste water production, and net energy and CO2 emission in each of the corn-to-ethanol unit processes. This process includes:

  • milling,
  • cooking,
  • fermentation,
  • distillation, and
  • drying. 

The results are basis for engineering evaluation of water reuse process, residual energy recycling, and CO2 capture or emission reductions.

Water Availability Index and Forecasting. 
EPA has developed and applied a municipal water availability index (MWAI) for short-term (days to weeks) forecasting of water availability for water supply planning and operations. The MWAI will be further developed and integrated with climate models. This will provide both short-term and long-term (years to decades) water availability projections. This product is made to be location-specific. This index is different from existing water indices because it combines the measurable information of water quantity and quality. 


Journal Articles

Chang, N., Y. J. Yang, and A. Daranpob. (2010). "Middle-term Metropolitan Water Availability Index Assessment Based on Synergistic Potentials of Multi-sensor Data." Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers, Inc. (SPIE), Bellingham, WA, 4(1):043519.


US EPA. Sidle, W. C., V. Cuetic, and Z. Li (2010). "Reconnaissance of the Olympic Hot Springs Area, Clallam County, Washington." Publication No. EPA/600/R-10/029.

Fact Sheets

Presentations & Proceedings

  • Yang, Y. J. (2010). "Precipitation Nonstationarity Effects on Water Infrastructure and Risk Management." Presented at Workshop on Nonstationarity, Hydrologic Frequency Analysis and Water Management, Boulder, CO, January 13 - 15.
  • Yang, Y. J. (2010). "Precipitation Variability and Projection Uncertainties in Climate Change Adaptation: Go Local!" Presented at MSSC 2010 Salinity Summit - Water and Energy, Las Vegas, NV, February 18 - 19.


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