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Publications

Arsenic

Copeland, R.C., D.A. Lytle and D.D. Dionysiou. (2007) “Desorption of Arsenic from Drinking Water Distribution System Solids.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 127:523-535 (On-line Issn. 0167-6369, Oct. 11, 2006).

Lytle, Darren. (2007) “Accumulation of Contaminants in the Distribution System (PDF) (28 pp, 532 Kb) Presentation, US EPA Inorganic Contaminant Issues Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, August 21.

Sorg, Thomas. (2007) “Arsenic: Latest Research (PDF) (55 pp, 1.1 Mb) Presentation, US EPA Inorganic Contaminant Issues Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, August 21.

Lytle, D.A., A. Chen, C. Muhlen, T. Sorg and K. French. (2007) "Nitrification, and Iron and Arsenic Removal in Biologically Active Filters: A Case Study." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 4-8.

US EPA. (2006) Hoffman, G.L., D.A. Lytle, T.J. Sorg, A.S.C. Chen and L. Wang. “Design Manual: Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water Supplies by Iron Removal Process.(PDF) (78 pp, 1.8 Mb) Publication no. EPA/600/R-06/030. | Abstract

Creed, P.A., C.M. Gallawa., A.R. Young, C.A. Schwegel, D.A. Lytle, T.J. Sorg and J.T. Creed. (2006) “Investigation of Sequential and Enzymatic Extraction of Arsenic from Drinking Water Distribution System Solids using ICP-MS.” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8:968-972.

Sorg T.J. and D. A. Lytle. (2006) "Arsenic and Ohio Utilities.” Presentation, Ohio American Water Works Association Seminar, Columbus, OH, November 9.

Lytle, D.A. (2006) "Nitrification and Arsenic Removal in Biologically Active Filters: A Case Study.” Presentation, University of Cincinnati CEE 676 Environmental Engineering & Science Graduate Seminar, Cincinnati, OH, November 17.

Lytle, D.A. (2006) "Nitrification and Arsenic Removal in Biologically Active Filters: A Case Study" Presentation, 2006 American Society of Civil Engineers Dayton Section Meeting, Dayton OH, May, 18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "The Accumulation and Release of Arsenic from Distribution System Solids." Presentation (Invited talk), American Water Works Association CA/NV Section Fall 2005 Conference, Reno, NV, October 10-15.

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg and V.L. Snoeyink. (2005) “Optimizing Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal: Theoretical and Practical Considerations.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 54:545-560.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Iron Removal Processes: Full Scale Experience" US EPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Iron Removal Processes: System Modifications for Enhanced Arsenic Removal." USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Iron Removal Processes: Design of New Systems" USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "U.S. EPA's Arsenic Treatment Research Demonstration Program" Presentation, USEPA Environmental Technologies Verification International Forum, Washington, D.C., July 12.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water During Iron Removal Processes." USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Austin, TX, May 23-24.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water During Iron Removal Processes." 2005 USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, South Bend, IN, May 12-13.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water during Iron Removal Processes." 2005 USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Sacramento, CA, April 28-29.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water during Iron Removal Processes." USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Phoenix, AZ, April 25-26.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water during Iron Removal Processes." 2005 OH American Water Works Association Manufacturers Exposition, Wilmington, OH, April 19.

Sorg, T.J. and D.A. Lytle. (2005) "The Accumulation of Arsenic in Drinking Water Distribution Systems" Presentation, WQA, Las Vegas, NV.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Distribution System Issues." USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Arsenic Removal Using Adsorption Technologies." Presentation, 2005 American Water Works Association ACE, San Francisco, CA, June 13-16.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Adsorption Technologies." 2005 USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Austin, TX, May 23-24.

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg, and C. Frietch. (2004). “The Accumulation of Arsenic in Drinking Water Distribution Systems" (PDF)(29 pp, 734 KB) Environmental Science and Technology, 38, 20: 5365–5372. Abstract exit EPA

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Arsenic Media for Arsenic Removal." Presentation, USEPA Workshop, Design and Operation of Adsorptive Media Processes for the Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Iron Removal for Arsenic Removal." Presentation, 2004 USEPA Workshop on the Design and Operation of Adsorptive Media Processes for the Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal." Webcast Presentation, USEPA Arsenic Rule Webcast, October 20.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Arsenic Treatment: Considerations and Case Studies." Presentation, Michgan DEQ, Emerging Issues in Water Treatment Meeting, Lansing, MI, May 18.

Sorg, T.J. and D.A. Lytle. (2004) “Optimizing Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal Processes.” Presentation, the 2004 Inorganic Contaminants Workshop, Reno, NV, February 1-3.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) “Arsenic Treatment: Considerations and Case Studies.” Presentation, Michgan DEQ, Emerging Issues in Water Treatment Meeting, Lansing MI, May 18.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Iron Removal for Arsenic Removal." Presentation, 2004 USEPA Workshop on the Design and Operation of Adsorptive Media Processes for the Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal." Webcast Presentation, USEPA Arsenic Rule Webcast, October 20.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Arsenic Treatment: Considerations and Case Studies." Presentation, Michgan DEQ, Emerging Issues in Water Treatment Meeting, Lansing, MI, May 18.

Sorg, T.J. and D.A. Lytle. (2004) “Optimizing Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal Processes.” Presentation, the 2004 Inorganic Contaminants Workshop, Reno, NV, February 1-3.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) “Arsenic Treatment: Considerations and Case Studies.” Presentation, Michgan DEQ, Emerging Issues in Water Treatment Meeting, Lansing MI, May 18.

Lytle, D.A. (2003) “Arsenic in Ohio: Considerations and Case Studies.” Presentation, Ohio American Water Works Association Annual Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, September 21-26.

Frietch, C.M. and D.A. Lytle. (2003) “The Effect of pH, Phosphate and Oxidant Type on the Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water During Iron Removal.” In: Proceedings 2003 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, November.

Lytle, D.A. (2002) “The Presence of Arsenic in Drinking Water Distribution Solids.” Presentation, Ohio EPA Arsenic Training Seminar, Columbus, OH, October 16.

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg and C. Frietch. (2002) “The Significance of Arsenic-Bound Solids in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2002 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Seattle, WA, November 10-13.

"The Presence of Arsenic in Drinking Water Distribution Solids" (PDF) (33 pp, 464 KB) Presentation.

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Asbestos

LeRoy, P., M.R. Schock, I. Wagner and H. Holtschulte. (1996) "Asbestos-Cement and Cement-Motar Lined Pipes." Chapter 7 in Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems. American, 2nd ed. Water Works Association Research Foundation /DVGW-TZW Cooperative Research Report.

Holtschulte, H. and M.R. Schock. (1985) "Asbestos-Cement and Cement-Motar Lined Pipes." Chapter 4 in Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems. American Water Works Association Research Foundation /DVGW Foschungstelle Cooperative Research Report.

Buelow, R.W. and M.R. Schock. (1981). “The Behavior of Asbestos-Cement Pipe Under Various Water Quality Conditions: Part 2, Theoretical Considerations.” Journal of the American Water Works Association, 73, 11: 609./p>

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Biofilm

Green, C., D.A. Lytle, C. Ho and M.J. Kiristis. (2007) "Microbial Oxidation of Arsenic: The Potential for Explotation in Drinking Water Treatment" Presentation, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Toronto, Canada, June 25-28.

Lytle, D.A., C. Frietch and T. Covert. (2004) “The Electrophoretic Mobility of Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Organisms in Water.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 70,9:5667-5671.

Lytle, D.A., C.H. Johnson and E.W. Rice. (2002) “A Systematic Comparison of the Electrokinetic Properties of Environmentally Important Microorganisms in Water.” Colloids and Surfaces B:Biointerfaces, 24:91-101.

Lytle, D.A., E.W. Rice, C.H. Johnson and K.R. Fox. (1999) “Electrophoretic Mobility of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 and Wild-Type Escherichia coli Strains.” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65,7:3222-3225.

US EPA. (1999) Clark, R.M. and M. Sivaganesan "Characterizing the Effect of Chlorine and Chloramines on the Formation of Biofilm in a Simulated Drinking Water Distribution System" (PDF) (46 pp, 501 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/R-01/024 | Abstract

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Brass

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1997). “Impact of Alloy Composition and pH on Brass Corrosion in Drinking Water.”Advances in Environmental Research, 1, 2: 213.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1997) “An Investigation of the Impact of Alloy Composition and pH on the Corrosion of Brass in Drinking Water.” Advance in Environmental Research, 1,2:213.

US EPA. (1996) Lytle, D.A. and M.R.Schock "Stagnation Time, Composition, pH, and Orthophosphate Effects on Metal Leaching From Brass" (PDF) (51 pp, 3.07 MB) Publication No. EPA/600/R-96/103 | Abstract

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “The Effect of Composition, pH, and Orthophosphate on the Corrosion of Brass.” Presentation, 1994 OH American Water Works Association Section Annual Conference, Toledo, OH, September 21-23.

Lytle, D.A. (1993) “Impact of pH and Lead Composition on Metal Leaching from Brass Coupons.” Presentation, 1993 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX, June 6-10.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1993) “Impact of pH and Lead Composition on Metal Leaching from Brass Coupons.” In: Proceedings 1993 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX, June 6-10.

Neff, C.H. and M.R. Schock. (1988). “Trace Metal Contamination From Brass Fittings.” Journal of the American Water Works Association, 80, 11: 47.

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Corrosion

Schock, Michael (2007). "New Insights into Lead Corrosion Control and Treatment Change Impacts (with some considerations towards Cu)" (PDF) (56 pp, 1.08 Mb) Presentation, American Water Works Association Meeting Section "Emerging Issues in Water Treatment," Michigan, May 15.

White, C. and D.A. Lytle. (2007) "The Effect of Phosphate on the Morphological and Spectroscopic Properties of Copper Drinking Water Pipes Experiencing Localized Corrosion." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 4-8.

Kang, Y., W.J. van Ooij and D. A. Lytle. (2007) "The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations and Examples." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 4-8.

Kang, Y., W.J. van Ooij and D.A. Lytle. (2007) “Study of Copper Corrosion in Drinking Water Using Electrochemical and Surface Analyses.” Presentation, 212th Annual Electrochemical Society Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 7-12.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2007) "Unsolved Problems with Corrosion and Distribution System Inorganics" Presentation, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Tronto, Canada, June 25-28.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and J. Kempic. (2006) "U.S. EPA Lead and Copper Corrosion, Distribution System Research, and Lead Copper Rule Regulatory Update." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO, November 5-8.

Lytle, D.A. (2006) "Copper Corrosion Update"; Presentation, OH American Water Works Association Safe Drinking Water Act Seminar, Columbus, OH, November 9.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Copper Pitting Corrosion and Pinhole Leaks: A Case Study." American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA, June 12-16.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Non-Uniform Copper Corrosion: Research Update." Presentation, American Water Works Association Research Foundation Project 2927 Expert Meeting, Installation, Condition Assessment and Reliability of Service Lines, Connections and Fittings, Cincinnati, OH, August 24.

Lytle, D.A., Payne, J. and M.R. Schock. (2004) "Corrosion Deposits" (PDF) (25 pp, 1.7 MB) Presentation, American Water Works Association ACE, Orlando, FL, June.

Lytle, D.A. , T.L. Gerke and J.B. Maynard. (2004) "Geochemistry of Sulfur in Iron Corrosion Scales Found in Drinking Water Distribution Systems." In: Proceedings 2004 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 11-14.

Stonesifer, K. , D.A. Lytle and M.R. Schock. (2002) “Oxidant and Redox Potential Effects on the Corrosion of Distribution System Materials.” In: Proceedings 2002 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Seattle, WA, November 10-13.

US EPA. (2001) Fan, C.Y., R. Field, W.C. Pisano, J. Barsanti, J.J. Joyce and H. Sorenson. "Sewer and Tank Flushing for Corrosion and Pollution Control" (PDF) (35 pp, 171 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/J-01/120 | Abstract

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2001) "The Use of Silicates for Corrosion Control in Building Drinking Water Systems" (PDF) (45 pp, 280 KB) Presentation, NACE.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2001) “Silicates for Corrosion Control.” Presentation, NACE Corrosion/2001 Technical Information Exchange ISCX - Supplemental Treatment of Potable Water in Building Systems, Houston, TX, March 13.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2001) “Drinking Water Quality Deterioration in the Distribution System: Colored Water Formation and It’s Control.” Presentation, Florida American Water Works Association Region IV Symposium on Corrosion Principles and Practices to Optimize Water Quality, Palm Harbor, FL, September 20.

Cook, B., K. Eager, C. Silke, et al. (1999). “Implementation and Secondary Impacts of Corrosion Control Treatment: Chicopee Water Supply and Water Pollution Control.” Journal of the New England Water Works Association, 113, 4: 308.

US EPA. (1999) Letterman, R., R.D. Driscoll Jr., M. Haddad and H.A. Hau. "Limestone Bed Contractors for Control of Corrosion at Small Water Utilities" (PDF) (221 pp, 6.36 MB) Publication No. EPA/600/2-86/099 | Abstract

Schock, M.R. (1999). “Reasons for Corrosion Control Other Than the Lead and Copper Rule.” Journal of the New England Water Works Association, 113, 2: 128. exit EPA

Lytle, D.A. (1999) “Corrosion Control in Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 1999 U.S. EPA 6th National Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology Transfer Workshop, Kansas City, MO, August 2-4.

Sarin, P., J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P., K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, M.A. Beckett, W.M. Kriven, V.L. Snoeyink and J.A. Clement. (1999) “Systematic Study of Corrosion Scales and Their Release of Iron Particles in Drinking Water.” In: Proceedings 1999 American Water Works Assocation/USEPA Particle Measurement and Characterization in Drinking Water Treatment Symposium, Nashville, TN, March 28-30.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1998). “Using Aeration for Corrosion Control.” Journal of the American Water Works Association, 90, 3: 74–88.exit EPA(1998) Erratum, Journal of American Water Works Association, 90,5:4.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1997) “An Investigation of the Impact of Alloy Composition and pH on the Corrosion of Brass in Drinking Water.” Advance in Environmental Research, 1,2:213.

Larosa-Thompson, J.L., B.E Scheetz., M.R Schock., D.A. Lytle and P.J. Delaney. (1997) “Sodium Silicate Corrosion Inhibitors: Issues of Effectiveness and Mechanism.” In: Proceedings American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO, November 9-12.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and T.J. Sorg. (1996) “Controlling Lead Corrosion in the Drinking Water of a Building by Orthophosphate and Silicate Treatment.” Journal of New England Water Works Association, 110,3:202.

Schock, M. R. (1996). “Corrosion Inhibitor Applications in Drinking Water Treatment: Conforming to the Lead and Copper Rule.” In: Proceedings: National Association of Corrosion Engineers Symposium, “Reviews on Corrosion Inhibitor Science and Technology II,” Paper no. 231, NACE Corrosion/96, Denver, CO.

Lytle, D.A. (1996) “An Evaluation of the Secondary Effects of Enhanced Coagulation, with Emphasis on Corrosion Control.” Presentation, 1996 National Conference on Integrating Corrosion Control and Other Water Quality Goals, USEPA/NEWWA, Cambridge, MA, May 19-21.

Lytle, D.A. (1996) “Evaluation of Corrosion Issues for Nanofiltration Treated Water.” Presentation, 1996 American Water Works Association, USEPA GAC and Membrane Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, March 3-5.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and R.J. Miltner. (1996) “An Evaluation of the Secondary Effects of Enhanced Coagulation, With Emphasis on Corrosion Control.” In: Proceedings 1996 National Conference on Integrating Corrosion Control and Other Water Quality Goals, USEPA/NEWWA, Cambridge, MA, May 19-21.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock, T. Speth and J. Swertfegger. (1996) “Evaluation of Corrosion Issues for Nanofiltration Treated Water.” In: Proceedings 1996 GAC and Membrane Workshop, American Water Works Association/USEPA, Cincinnati, OH, March 3-5.

Frebis, C.P., B. Prokop, A.M. Sandvig, et al. (1995). “Statistical Procedures for Corrosion Studies.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 87, 7: 99.exit EPA

Lytle, D.A. (1995) “Investigation on Techniques and Control of Building Lead and Copper Corrosion by Orthophosphate and Silicate.” Presentation, 1995 NACE Corrosion Conference, Orlando, FL, March 26-31.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1995) “Control of Copper Corrosion of Household Plumbing Materials.” In: Abstract Proceedings of the 21st Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, April 4-6.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and J.A. Clement. (1995) “Application and Considerations of Aeration for Corrosion Control.” In: Proceedings 1995 American Water Works Association Water Quality and Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, November 12-16.

Miller, N.T., P. Delaney, M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1995) “Analytical Issues in Corrosion and Deposition Studies.” In: Proceedings 1995 American Water Works Association Water Quality and Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, November 12-16.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “The Effect of Composition, pH, and Orthophosphate on the Corrosion of Brass.” Presentation, 1994 OH American Water Works Association Section Annual Conference, Toledo, OH, September 21-23.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “Experiences with Sodium Silicate in Corrosion Control Studies.” Presentation, 1994 PQ Corp. International Silicate Conference, Valley Forge, PA, July 19-21.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “Silicates for Simultaneous Fe/Mn Stabilization and Corrosion Control.” Presentation, 1994 PQ Corp. International Silicate Conference; Valley Forge, PA. July 19-21.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1994) “The Importance of Stringent Control of DIC and pH in Laboratory Corrosion Studies.” In: Proceedings 1994 American Water Works Association Water Quality and Technology Conference, San Francisco, CA, November 7-10.

Clement, J. A., M.R. Schock, and D.A. Lytle. (1994) “Controlling Lead and Copper Corrosion and Sequestering of Iron and Manganese.” In: Proceedings 1994 ASCE National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO.

Lytle, D.A. (1993) “Sampling and Design Considerations for Corrosion Control Studies.” Presentation, 1993 Solutions to Controlling Lead and Copper Corrosion II sponsored by NEWWA/USEPA, Nashua, NH, November 2-3.

Clement, J., and D.A. Lytle. (1993) “Considerations for the Use of Polyphosphates and Silicates to Control Lead and Copper Based Corrosion.” In: Proceedings 1993 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX, June 6-10.

Sorg, T.J., D.A. Lytle and M.R.Schock. (1993) “Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors to Reduce Lead in the Drinking Water in Buildings.” In: Abstract Proceedings Nineteenth Annual USEPA RREL Hazardous Waste Research Symposium, USEPA Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C., April.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1992) “Corrosion Control Principles and Strategies for Reducing Lead and Copper in Drinking Water Systems.” In: Proceedings Water Quality Association Annual Convention and Exposition, Orlando, FL, March 11-15.

Lytle, D.A., M.R.Schock and S. Tackett. (1992) “Metal Corrosion Coupon Study Contamination, Design, and Interpretation Problems.” In: Proceedings 1992 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Toronto, Ontario, November 15-19.

Lytle, D.A. (1992) “Metal Corrosion Coupon Study Contamination, Design, and Interpretation Problems.” Presentation, 1992 Water Quality Technology Conference, Toronto, Ontario, November 15-19.

Lytle, D.A., M.R.Schock and S. Tackett. (1992) “Metal Corrosion Coupon Study Contamination, Design, and Interpretation Problems.” In: Proceedings 1992 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Toronto, Ontario, November 15-19.

Schock, M.R. (1989) "Understanding Corrosion Control Strategies for Lead." Journal of American Water Works Association, 81, 7:88.

Holtschulte, H. and M.R. Schock. (1985) "Asbestos-Cement and Cement-Motar Lined Pipes." Chapter 4 in Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems. American Water Works Association Research Foundation /DVGW Foschungstelle Cooperative Research Report.

Schock, M.R. and S.C. Schock. (1982) "Effect of Container Type on pH and Alkalinity Stability." Water Research, 16:1455.

Schock, M.R. and R.W. Buelow. (1980) "Laboratory Techniques for Measurement of pH for Corrosion Control Studies and Water not in Equilibrium with the Atmosphere." Journal of American Water Works Association, 72, 5:304.

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Cuprosolvency

US EPA. (1995) Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. "Effect of pH, DIC, Orthophosphate and Sulfate on Drinking Water Cuprosolvency" (PDF) (107 pp, 760 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/R-95/085 | Abstract

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle and J.A. Clement. (1995) “Effects of pH, Carbonate, Orthophosphate, and Redox Potential on Cuprosolvency.” In: Proceedings 1995 NACE Corrosion Conference, Orlando, FL, March 26-31.

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Distribution Systems

Copeland, R.C., D.A. Lytle and D.D. Dionysiou. (2007) “Desorption of Arsenic from Drinking Water Distribution System Solids.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 127:523-535 (On-line Issn. 0167-6369, Oct. 11, 2006).

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg, L. Wang, C. Muhlen, M. Rahrig and K. French. (2007) “Biological Nitrification in Full-Scale and Pilot-Scale Iron Removal Drinking Water Treatment Plant Filters.Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA, 56, 2:125-136.

Schock, Michael. (2007) “Distribution System Considerations for Treatment (PDF) (52 pp, 2.5 Mb) Presentation, US EPA Inorganic Contaminant Issues Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, August 22.

Lytle, Darren. (2007) “Accumulation of Contaminants in the Distribution System (PDF) (28 pp, 532 Kb) Presentation, US EPA Inorganic Contaminant Issues Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, August 21.

Rego, C.A. and M.R. Schock. (2007). “Case Studies in the Integrated Use of Scale Analyses to Solve Lead Problems (PDF).”(31 pp, 1.08 MB) Presentation, 2007 American Water Works Association Research Symposium, Reno, NV, March 2–3.

Lytle, D.A., C. Muhlen and B. Almassalkhi. (2007) “Elevated Natural Source Water Ammonia and Nitrification in the Distribution Systems of Four Water Utilities.” Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 4-8.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2007) "Unsolved Problems with Corrosion and Distribution System Inorganics" Presentation, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Tronto, Canada, June 25-28.

White, C. and D.A. Lytle. (2007) "The Effect of Phosphate on the Morphological and Spectroscopic Properties of Copper Drinking Water Pipes Experiencing Localized Corrosion." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 4-8.

US EPA. (2006) Hoffman, G.L., D.A. Lytle, T.J. Sorg, A.S.C. Chen and L. Wang. “Design Manual: Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water Supplies by Iron Removal Process.(PDF) (78 pp, 1.8 Mb) Publication no. EPA/600/R-06/030. | Abstract

Creed, P.A., C.M. Gallawa., A.R. Young, C.A. Schwegel, D.A. Lytle, T.J. Sorg and J.T. Creed. (2006) “Investigation of Sequential and Enzymatic Extraction of Arsenic from Drinking Water Distribution System Solids using ICP-MS.” Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8:968-972.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and J. Kempic. (2006) "U.S. EPA Lead and Copper Corrosion, Distribution System Research, and Lead Copper Rule Regulatory Update." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO, November 5-8.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle, A.M. Sandvig, J.M. Clement and S.M. Harmon. (2005) "Replacing Polyphosphate with Silicate to Solve Problems with Lead, Copper and Source Water Iron." Journal of the American Water Works Association, 97, 11:84.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2005) "The Formation of Pb (IV) Oxides in Chlorinated Water." Journal of the American Water Works Association, 97, 11:102-114.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "The Accumulation and Release of Arsenic from Distribution System Solids." Presentation (Invited talk), American Water Works Association CA/NV Section Fall 2005 Conference, Reno, NV, October 10-15.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Distribution System Issues." USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Sorg, T.J. and D.A. Lytle. (2005) "The Accumulation of Arsenic in Drinking Water Distribution Systems" Presentation, WQA, Las Vegas, NV.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Distribution System Issues." USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A., P. Sarin and V.L. Snoeyink. (2004) “The Effect of Chloride and Orthophosphate on the Release of Iron from a Drinking Water Distribution System Cast Iron Pipe.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 54,5:267-281.

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg and C. Frietch. (2004) “The Accumulation of Arsenic in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.” Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 38,20:5365-5372.

Schock, M.R., K.G. Scheckel, M. DeSantis and T.L. Gerke. (2004) "Mode of Occurrence, Treatment and Monitoring Significance of Tetravalent Lead." American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Quebec City, Canada, November 6-10.

Rego, C.A., W.T. Wanberg. and M.R. Schock. (2004) "The Formation of Pb(IV) Oxides in Chlorinated Water." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Quebec City, Canada, November 6-10.

Schock, M.R. (2004) "Distribution Systems as Contamination Reservoirs: Is a New Paradigm Needed for Treatment and Monitoring?" Inorganics Contaminants Workshop, Reno, NV, February 1-3.

Schock, M.R. and Giani. (2004) "Oxidant/Disinfection Chemistry and Impacts on Lead Corrosion" American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 14-18.

Clement, B. and G. Carlson. (2004) "Contaminant Accumulation in the Distribution System, Case Histories" (PDF) (68 pp, 3.5 MB)Presentation, American Water Works Association 2004 Inorganic Contaminants Workshop, Denver, Colorado.

Schock, M.R. (2004) "Water Quality Impacts on Metal Release and Emerging Research Issues for Service Lines" (PDF) (44 pp, 1.4 MB) Presentation, American Water Works Association Research Foundation.

Lytle. D.A., J.M. Payne and M.R. Schock. (2004) "Studying Distribution System Solids: Approach and Application" (PDF) (27 pp, 825 KB) Presentation, American Water Works Association ACE, Orlando, Florida, June.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Geochemistry of Sulfur in Iron Corrosion Scales Found in Drinking Water Distribution Systems." Presentation, the 2004 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 11-14.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Studying Distribution System Solids: Approach and Application." Presentation, 2004 American Water Works Association Annual Conference. Orlando, FL, June 13-17.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) “Studying Distribution System Solids: Approach and Application.” Presentation, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, June 13-17.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Studying Distribution System Solids: Approach and Application." Presentation, 2004 American Water Works Association Annual Conference. Orlando, FL, June 13-17.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) “Studying Distribution System Solids: Approach and Application.” Presentation, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, June 13-17.

Lytle, D.A. (2003) “Drinking Water Quality Deterioration in Distribution Systems: Colored Water Formation and Its Control.” Presentation, American Water Works Association Drinking Water Distribution System Symposium, Portland, OR, September 28-30.

Lytle, D.A. (2003) “Application of Models to Drinking Water Distribution System Processes and Their Limitations.” Presentation, American Water Works Association Research Foundation (AwwaRF) workshop on Distribution System Modeling Research Needs, Voorhees, NJ, April 2-3.

Lytle, D.A. , V.L. Snoeyink and P. Sarin. (2003) “The Effect of Chloride and Orthophosphate on the Release of Iron from a Drinking Water Distribution System Cast Iron Pipe.” In: Proceedings 2003 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, November.

Schock, M.R. T.R. Lovejoy, J. Holldber and J. Lowry. (2002) "California's First Aeration Plants for Corrosion Control." Journal of American Water Works Association, 94, 3:88-100.

Schock, M.R. and K.C. Kelty. (2002) "Vanadium Chemistry Essentials for Treatment Studies." Inorganics Contaminants Workshop (extended abstract) , San Diego, CA, February 3-5.

US EPA. (2002) Selvakumar, A., R.M. Clark and M. Savasanesan. "Costs for Water Supply Distribution System Rehabilitation" (PDF) (16 pp, 67 KB) Publication No. EPA/600/JA-02/406 | Abstract

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg and C. Frietch. (2002) “The Significance of Arsenic-Bound Solids in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2002 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Seattle, WA, November 10-13.

Stonesifer, K. , D.A. Lytle and M.R. Schock. (2002) “Oxidant and Redox Potential Effects on the Corrosion of Distribution System Materials.” In: Proceedings 2002 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Seattle, WA, November 10-13.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2001) “Drinking Water Quality Deterioration in the Distribution System: Colored Water Formation and It’s Control.” Presentation, Florida American Water Works Association Region IV Symposium on Corrosion Principles and Practices to Optimize Water Quality, Palm Harbor, FL, September 20.

E.T. Urbansky and M.R. Schock (2000) "Understanding, Deriving and Computing Buffer Capacity." Journal of Chemical Education, 77:1640.

Lytle, D.A., V.L. Snoeyink, M.R. Schock. (2000) "The Effect of pH and Bicarbonate Concentration on the Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron in Aqueous Solutions." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P. , J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P., J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A Lytle., J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Feld, C.M. , D.A. Lytle and M.R. Schock. (2000) “The Effect of Fluoride on Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Using Aluminum Sulfate.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, November 6-9.

Sarin, P., J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P., J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Urabansky, E.T. and M.R. Schock. (1999) "Issues in Managing the Risks Associated with Percholrate in Drinking Water." Journal Environmental Management, 56:79.

Spencer, C.M., M.R. Schock, M.DelToral and T.J. Sorg. (1999) "Regulatory Interactions of Concern to Small Water Systems with Emphasis on Maintaining Optimal Corrosion Control." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Chicago, IL, June 20-24.

Lytle, D.A. (1999) “Corrosion Control in Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 1999 U.S. EPA 6th National Drinking Water and Wastewater Treatment Technology Transfer Workshop, Kansas City, MO, August 2-4.

Sarin, P., K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, M.A. Beckett, W.M. Kriven, V.L. Snoeyink and J.A. Clement. (1999) “Systematic Study of Corrosion Scales and Their Release of Iron Particles in Drinking Water.” In: Proceedings 1999 American Water Works Assocation/USEPA Particle Measurement and Characterization in Drinking Water Treatment Symposium, Nashville, TN, March 28-30.

Holm, T.R. and M.R. Schock. (1998) "Computing Saturation Indices and Calcium Carbonate Precipitation Potential using Spreadsheet Programs." Journal of American Water Works Association, 90, 7:80.

Clement, J.A. and M. R. Schock. (1998) "Buffer Intensity: What It Is, And Why It Is Critical for Solving Distribution System Water Quality Problems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-4.

Lytle, D.A. (1998) “The Design of a Mini-scale Conventional/Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Cryptosporidium Research.” Presentation, 1996 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Dallas, TX, June 21-25.

Beckett, M., V.L. Snoeyink, K. Jim, P. Sarin, D.A. Lytle, W. Kriven and J. Clement. (1998) “A Pipe Loop System for Evaluating Iron Uptake in Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 1998 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-5.

Lytle, D.A. , K.R. Fox, R.J. Miltner, T.F. Speth, M.R. Schock, K.L. Kropp, H. Shukairy, L. Fichter and N. Dugan. (1998) “The Design of a “Mini-scale” Conventional/Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Cryptosporidium Research.” In: Proceedings 1998 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Dallas, TX, June 21-25.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle, A.M. Sandvig and S.M. Harmon. (1997) "Improved Corrosion Control Using NanoFiltration with Limited Post-Treatment ." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-4.

Clement, J.A. and M. R. Schock. (1997) "Buffer Intensity: What It Is, And Why It Is Critical for Solving Distribution System Water Quality Problems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-4.

Oliphant, R. and M.R. Schock. (1996) "Copper Alloys and Solder." Chapter 6 in Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems, 2nd ed. American Water Works Association Research Foundation /DVGW-TZW Cooperative Research Report.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and R.J. Miltner. (1996) "An Evaluation of the Secondary Effects of Enhanced Coagulation, with Emphasis on Corrosion Control." In Proceedings: US EPA/New England Water Works Association National Conference on Integrating Corrosion Control and Other Water Quality Goals, Cambridge, MA, May 19-21.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1995) "Effects of pH, Carbonate, Orthophosphate, and Redox Potential on Cuprsolvency." In Proceedings: National Association of Corrosion Engineers-Corrosion/95, Orlando, FL, March 26-31.

N.T. Miller, M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1995) "Analytical Issues in Corrosion and Deposition Studies ." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, November 12-16.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1994) "The Importance of Stringent Control of DIC and pH in Laboratory Corrosion Studies: Theory and Practice." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Francisco, CA, November 6-10.

Lytle, D.A., M.J. Dryfuse, R.J. Miltner, M.R. Schock and R.S.Summers.. (1994) "An Evaluation of the Secondary Effects of Enhanced Coagulation." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Enhanced Coagulation Research Workshop, Charleston, SC, December 4-5.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “Controlling Copper, Lead and Iron in Small Systems.” Presentation, 20th Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, March 15-17.

Lytle, D.A. and J.A. Clement. (1994) “Controlling Copper, Lead and Iron in Small Systems.” In: Abstract Proceedings 20th Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, March 15-17.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1992) “Corrosion Control Principles and Strategies for Reducing Lead and Copper in Drinking Water Systems.” In: Proceedings Water Quality Association Annual Convention and Exposition, Orlando, FL, March 11-15.

Wysock, B.M., M.R. Schock and J.A. Estman. (1991) "A Study of the Effect of Municipal Ion Exchange Softening on The Corrosion of Lead, Copper and Iron in Water Systems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Philadelphia, PA, June 16-20.

M.R. Schock. (1990) "Causes of Temporal Variability of Lead in Domestic Plumbing Systems." Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 15:59.

Shock, M.R. (1990) "Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control." Chapter 17 in Water Quality and Treatment, 4th ed. Edited by American Water Works Association. McGraw-Hill.

Schock, M.R. (1990). “Causes of Temporal Variability of Lead in Domestic Plumbing Systems.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 15, 59.

Levin, R. and M.R. Schock. (1990) "The Use of Pipe Loop Tests for Corrosion Control Diagnostics." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, SanDiego, CA, Nov 11-15.

Schock, M.R. and K.W. Smothers. (1989) "X-Ray, Microscope and Wet Chemical Technique: A Complementary Team for Deposit Analysis." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 12-16.

Levin, R., M.R. Schock, and R.M. Clark. (1989) "The Current State of Corrosion Control: Technologies and Costs." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 12-16.

Schock, M.R. (1984). “Temperature and Ionic Strength Corrections to the Langelier Index (Revisited).” Journal of the American Water Works Association, 76, 8: 72. exit EPA

Schock, M.R. (1984) "Treatment or Water Quality Adjustment to Attain MCL's in Metallic Potable Water Plumbing Systems." In Proceedings: US EPA Seminar on Plumbing Materials and Drinking Water Quality, Cincinnati, OH May 16-17.

Schock, M.R. and C.H. Neff. (1982) "Chemical Aspects of Internal Corrosion: Theory, Prediction and Monitoring." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference X, Nashville, Tennessee, Dec 5-8.

"Unsolved Problems With Corrosion and Distribution System Inorganics" (PDF) (36 pp, 1.6 MB) Presentation.

Shoevink, V.L. and I. Racheff. Drinking Water Quality Deterioration in Distribution Systems: Colored Water Formation and Its Control (PDF) (38 pp, 1.4 MB) Presentation.

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Iron

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg, L. Wang, C. Muhlen, M. Rahrig and K. French. (2007) “Biological Nitrification in Full-Scale and Pilot-Scale Iron Removal Drinking Water Treatment Plant Filters.Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA, 56, 2:125-136.

Lytle, D.A., A. Chen, C. Muhlen, T. Sorg and K. French. (2007) "Nitrification, and Iron and Arsenic Removal in Biologically Active Filters: A Case Study." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 4-8.

Burlingame, G.A., D. A. Lytle and V.L. Snoeyink. (2006) “Red Water: Understanding Iron Release.” Opflow, 32:12.

US EPA. (2006) Hoffman, G.L., D.A. Lytle, T.J. Sorg, A.S.C. Chen and L. Wang. “Design Manual: Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water Supplies by Iron Removal Process.(PDF) (78 pp, 1.8 Mb) Publication no. EPA/600/R-06/030. | Abstract

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle, A. M. Sandvig, J. Clement and S.M. Harmon. (2005) “Replacing Polyphosphates with Silicate to Solve Lead, Copper, and Source Water Iron Problems.” Journal? 97:11.

Lytle, D.A., T.J. Sorg and V.L. Snoeyink. (2005) “Optimizing Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal: Theoretical and Practical Considerations.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 54:545-560.

Lytle, D.A., T.L. Gerke and J.B. Maynard. (2005) “Effect of Bacterial Sulfate Reduction on Iron-corrosion Scales.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 97,10:109-120.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Iron Removal Processes: System Modifications for Enhanced Arsenic Removal." USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Iron Removal Processes: Design of New Systems" USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Distribution System Issues." USEPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water During Iron Removal Processes." USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Austin, TX, May 23-24.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water During Iron Removal Processes." 2005 USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, South Bend, IN, May 12-13.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water during Iron Removal Processes." 2005 USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Sacramento, CA, April 28-29.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water during Iron Removal Processes." USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Phoenix, AZ, April 25-26.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Reducing Arsenic Levels in Drinking Water during Iron Removal Processes." 2005 OH American Water Works Association Manufacturers Exposition, Wilmington, OH, April 19.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Iron Removal Processes: Full Scale Experience" US EPA Workshop, Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH, August 16-18.

Sarin, P., V.L. Snoeyink, D.A. Lytle and W.M. Kriven. (2004) “Iron Corrosion Scales: Model for Scale Growth, Iron Release and Colored Water Formation.” Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130:364-373.

Lytle, D.A., P. Sarin and V.L. Snoeyink. (2004) “The Effect of Chloride and Orthophosphate on the Release of Iron from a Drinking Water Distribution System Cast Iron Pipe.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 54,5:267-281.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2004) “The Effect of Oxidant on the Properties of Fe(III) Particles and Suspensions Formed from the Oxidation of Fe(II).” Journal of American Water Works Association, 96,8:112-124.

Lytle, D.A., T.L. Gerke and J.B. Maynard (2004) "Geochemistry of Sulfur in Iron Corrosion Scales Found in Drinking Water Distribution Systems" (PDF) (19 pp, 688 KB) Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality and Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 11-14.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Iron Removal for Arsenic Removal." Presentation, 2004 USEPA Workshop on the Design and Operation of Adsorptive Media Processes for the Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal." Webcast Presentation, USEPA Arsenic Rule Webcast, October 20.

Sorg, T.J. and D.A. Lytle. (2004) “Optimizing Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal Processes.” Presentation, the 2004 Inorganic Contaminants Workshop, Reno, NV, February 1-3.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Iron Removal for Arsenic Removal." Presentation, 2004 USEPA Workshop on the Design and Operation of Adsorptive Media Processes for the Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water, Cincinnati, OH.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Arsenic Removal During Iron Removal." Webcast Presentation, USEPA Arsenic Rule Webcast, October 20.

Lytle, D.A. , T.L. Gerke and J.B. Maynard. (2004) "Geochemistry of Sulfur in Iron Corrosion Scales Found in Drinking Water Distribution Systems." In: Proceedings 2004 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 11-14.

Sarin, P., Snoeyink, V.L. and D.A. Lytle. (2004) “Controlling Red Water and Iron Release.” In: Abstract Proceedings 2004 IWA Conference on Leading Edge Treatment Technologies, Czech Republic, Prague, May 31-June 3.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2003) “The Effect of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon on the Properties of Iron Colloidal Suspensions.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 52,3:165-180.

Lytle, D.A., V.L. Snoeyink and P. Sarin (2003) "The Effect of Chloride and Orthophosphate on the Release of Iron From a Drinking Water Distribution System Pipe" (PDF) (19 pp, 582 KB) Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality and Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, November 5.

Lytle, D.A. , V.L. Snoeyink and P. Sarin. (2003) “The Effect of Chloride and Orthophosphate on the Release of Iron from a Drinking Water Distribution System Cast Iron Pipe.” In: Proceedings 2003 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, November.

Frietch, C.M. and D.A. Lytle. (2003) “The Effect of pH, Phosphate and Oxidant Type on the Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water During Iron Removal.” In: Proceedings 2003 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, November.

Snoeyink, V.L. , P. Sarin and D.A. Lytle. (2003) “Iron Release and Colored Water Formation from Iron Scales.” In: Proceedings 2003 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, June 15-19.

Lytle, D.A. (2002) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Properties of Iron Particles and Suspensions.” Presentation, University of Illinois Student Symposium, Champaign, IL, December 11.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2002) “Effect of Ortho- and Polyphosphates on the Properties of Iron Particles and Suspensions.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 94,10:87-99.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2002) "The Effect of Ortho- and Polyphosphates on the Properties of Iron Particles and Suspensions Derived From the Oxygenation of Fe (II)" (PDF) (26 pp, 1.2 MB) Presentation, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, June 16-29.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2002) “The Influence of Oxidant Type on the Properties of Iron Colloids and Suspensions Formed from Ferrous Iron.” In: Proceedings 2002 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Seattle, WA, November 10-13.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2002) “The Effect of Ortho- and Poly-Phosphates on the Properties of Iron Particles and Suspensions Formed from the Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron.” In: Proceedings 2002 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA, June 16-20.

Lytle, D.A. (2000) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Properties of Iron Particles and Iron Suspensions.” Presentation, 2000 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference; Salt Lake City, UT, November 6-9.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) "The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Physical Properties of Iron Colloids and Aqueous Iron Suspensions" (PDF) (33 pp, 1.37 MB)Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality and Technology Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, November 5-8.

Lytle, D.A. (2000) “The Effect of pH and Bicarbonate Concentration on the Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron in Aqueous Solutions.” Presentation, 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Properties of Iron Particles and Iron Suspensions.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, Nov. 6-9.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Physical Properties of Iron Colloids and Aqueous Iron Suspensions.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association International Distribution System Symposium, Denver, CO, June 9-10.

Lytle, D.A. , V.L. Snoeyink and M.R. Schock. (2000) “The Effect of pH and Bicarbonate Concentration on the Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron in Aqueous Solutions.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Lytle, D.A. (2000) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Physical Properties of Iron Colloids and Aqueous Iron Suspensions.” Presentation, 2000 American Water Works Association International Distribution System Symposium, Denver, CO, June 9-10.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Physical Properties of Iron Colloids and Aqueous Iron Suspensions.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association International Distribution System Symposium, Denver, CO, June 9-10.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Properties of Iron Particles and Iron Suspensions.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, November 6-9.

Lytle, D.A. , V.L. Snoeyink and M.R. Schock. (2000) “The Effect of pH and Bicarbonate Concentration on the Oxygenation of Ferrous Iron in Aqueous Solutions.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P. , J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P., J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A Lytle., J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15. Sarin, P. , J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A. Lytle,

J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P., J. Bebee, M.A. Beckett, K.K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, J.A. Clement, W.M. Kriven and V.L. Snoeyink. (2000) “Mechanism of Release of Iron from Corroded Iron/Steel Pipes in Water Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 2000 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

Sarin, P., K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, M.A. Beckett, W.M. Kriven, V.L. Snoeyink and J.A. Clement. (1999) “Systematic Study of Corrosion Scales and Their Release of Iron Particles in Drinking Water.” In: Proceedings 1999 American Water Works Assocation/USEPA Particle Measurement and Characterization in Drinking Water Treatment Symposium, Nashville, TN, March 28-30.

Beckett, M., V.L. Snoeyink, K. Jim, P. Sarin, D.A. Lytle, W. Kriven and J. Clement. (1998) “A Pipe Loop System for Evaluating Iron Uptake in Distribution Systems.” In: Proceedings 1998 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-5.

Schock, M.R., J. Clement, D.A. Lytle, A.M. Sandvig and S.M. Harmon. (1998) “Replacing Polyphosphate with Silicate to Solve Problems with Lead, Copper and Source Water Iron.” In: Proceedings 1998 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-5.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “Silicates for Simultaneous Fe/Mn Stabilization and Corrosion Control.” Presentation, 1994 PQ Corp. International Silicate Conference; Valley Forge, PA. July 19-21.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “Controlling Copper, Lead and Iron in Small Systems.” Presentation, 20th Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, March 15-17.

Clement, J. A., M.R. Schock, and D.A. Lytle. (1994) “Controlling Lead and Copper Corrosion and Sequestering of Iron and Manganese.” In: Proceedings 1994 ASCE National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO.

Lytle, D.A. and J.A. Clement. (1994) “Controlling Copper, Lead and Iron in Small Systems.” In: Abstract Proceedings 20th Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, March 15-17.

Schock, M.R. and R.B. Mercer. (1977) "Direct Determination of Copper, Manganese and Iron in Soils and Sediments Using Secondary Absorption Lines." Atomic Absorption Newsletter, 16:30. Errata 16:69.

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Lead, Copper

Lytle, Darren. (2007) “Copper Research Update (PDF) (35 pp, 2.4 Mb) Presentation, US EPA Inorganic Contaminant Issues Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, August 21.

Schock, Michael. (2007) “Lead Hot Topics (PDF) (50 pp, 2.1 Mb) Presentation, US EPA Inorganic Contaminant Issues Workshop, Cincinnati, OH, August 21.

Schock, Michael. (2007)."New Insights into Lead Corrosion Control and Treatment Change Impacts (with some considerations towards Cu)" (PDF) (56 pp, 1.08 Mb) Presentation, American Water Works Association Meeting Section "Emerging Issues in Water Treatment," Michigan, May 15.

Kang, Y., W.J. van Ooij and D. A. Lytle. (2007) "The Application of Electrochemical and Surface Analysis Approaches to Studying Copper Corrosion in Water: Fundamentals, Limitations and Examples." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Charlotte, NC, November 4-8.

Kang, Y., W.J. van Ooij and D.A. Lytle. (2007) “Study of Copper Corrosion in Drinking Water Using Electrochemical and Surface Analyses.” Presentation, 212th Annual Electrochemical Society Meeting, Washington, D.C., October 7-12.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and J. Kempic. (2006) "U.S. EPA Lead and Copper Corrosion, Distribution System Research, and Lead Copper Rule Regulatory Update." Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO, November 5-8.

Lytle, D.A. (2006) "Copper Corrosion Update"; Presentation, OH American Water Works Association Safe Drinking Water Act Seminar, Columbus, OH, November 9.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle, A. M. Sandvig, J. Clement and S.M. Harmon. (2005) “Replacing Polyphosphates with Silicate to Solve Lead, Copper, and Source Water Iron Problems.” Journal? 97:11.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Copper Pitting Corrosion and Pinhole Leaks: A Case Study" (PDF) (36 pp, 948 KB) Presentation, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Francisco, CA, June 12-16.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle, A.M. Sandvig, J.M. Clement and S.M. Harmon. (2005) "Replacing Polyphosphate with Silicate to Solve Problems with Lead, Copper and Source Water Iron." Journal of the American Water Works Association, 97, 11:84.

Dudi, Abhijeet, Schock, Michael, Murray, Newstor, and Edwards. (2005) "Lead Leaching from Inine Brass Devices: A Critical Evaluation of the Existing Standard." Journal of the American Water Works Association, 97, 8:66.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2005) "The Formation of Pb (IV) Oxides in Chlorinated Water." Journal of the American Water Works Association, 97, 11:102-114.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Arsenic Removal Using Adsorption Technologies." Presentation, 2005 American Water Works Association ACE, San Francisco, CA, June 13-16.

Lytle, D.A. (2005) "Adsorption Technologies." 2005 USEPA Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Arsenic Workshop, Austin, TX, May 23-24.

Lytle. D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2004) "The Formation of Pb(IV) Oxides in Chlorinated Water." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Quebec City, Canada, November 6-10.

Rego, C.A., W.T. Wanberg. and M.R. Schock. (2004) "The Formation of Pb(IV) Oxides in Chlorinated Water." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Quebec City, Canada, November 6-10.

Schock, M.R, K.G. Scheckel, M. DeSantis and T.L. Gerke. (2004) "Mode of Occurrence, Treatment and Monitoring Significance of Tetravalent Lead." American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Quebec City, Canada, November 6-10.

Schock, M.R and Giani. (2004) "Oxidant/Disinfection Chemistry and Impacts on Lead Corrosion." American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 14-18.

Dudi, Abhijett, Edwards, Marc, and M.R. Schock. (2004) "Lead in Drinking Water from Brass In-Line Devices: Making the Case for a Revised Standard." Inorganics Contaminants Workshop, Reno, NV, February 1-3.

Lytle. D.A. (2004) "Lead and Copper Research Update: Recent Findings and Future Areas of Work" (PDF) (26 pp, 2 MB) Presentation, Ohio American Water Works Association Meeting, Toledo, OH September 16.

Lytle, D.A. and J.M. Payne. (2004) "Non-Uniform Copper Corrosion: Research Update" (PDF) (26 pp, 1.5 MB) Presentation, American Water Works Association Research Foundation. 2927 Project Meeting, Cincinnati, OH, August 24.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Lead and Copper Research Update: Recent Findings and Future Areas of Research." Presentation, 2004 OH American Water Works Association Annual Meeting, Toledo, OH, September 15-17.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Lead and Copper Research Update: Recent Findings and Future Areas of Research." Presentation, 2004 OH American Water Works Association Annual Meeting, Toledo, OH, September 15-17.

Schock, M.R. T.R. Lovejoy, J. Holldber and J. Lowry. (2002) "California's First Aeration Plants for Corrosion Control." Journal of American Water Works Association, 94, 3:88-100.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock (2001) "Lead and Copper Corrosion: What Have We Learned Since the LCR?" (PDF) (57 pp, 873 KB) Presentation, Tampa, FL.

Schock, M.R., J. Swertfeger, S.M. Harmon, et al. (2001). “Tetravalent Lead: A Hitherto Unrecognized Control of Tap Water Lead Contamination.” Presentation, American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Nashville, TN, November 11–14. Abstract

Shock, M.R. and J.C. Fox. (2001) "Solving Copper Corrosion Problems While Maintaining Lead Control in a High Alkalinity Water Using Orthophosphate" (PDF) (31 pp, 3 MB) In: Proceedings Ohio American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Cleveland, OH, August 30.

Edwards, M., K. Powers, L. Hidmi and M.R. Schock. (2001) "Role of Pipe Aging in Copper Corrosion By-Products Release." Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, 43,10:G04.

Clement, J.A. M.R. Schock, C.M. Spencer, S.C. Olson, J. Dwyer, B.K. Cook and W. Marshall. (2001) "Flowcharts for the Selection of Lead and Copper Corrosion Control Strategies." Journal of New England Water Works Association, 115, 4:288-312.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock (2001) “The LCR: What Have We Learned in the Last 10 Years.” Presentation, Florida American Water Works Association Region IV Symposium, Palm Harbor, FL, September 20.

Edwards, M., K. Powers, M.R. Schock and L. Hidmi. (2000) "Role of Pipe Aging in Copper Corrosion By-Products Release." In Proceedings: Workshop on Pipe Material Selection for Drinking Water Systems, Goteborg, Sweden, September.

E.T. Urbansky and M.R. Schock (2000) "Can Fluoridation Affect Water Lead Levels and Lead Neurotoxicity?" (PDF) (31 pp, 326 Kb). In: Proceedings, American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Denver, CO, June 11-15.

E.T. Urbansky and M.R. Schock (2000) "Can Fluoridation Affect Lead (II) in Potable Water? Hexafluorosilicate and Fluoride Equilibria in Aqueous Solution" International Journal of Environmental Studies, Section B, 57:597-637.

Shock, M.R. (2000) "Lead Corrosion: What Research Is Needed?" (PDF) (32 pp, 63 KB) Presentation, American Water Works Association.

E.T. Urbansky and M.R. Schock (2000) "Understanding, Deriving and Computing Buffer Capacity." Journal of Chemical Education, 77:1640.

Schock, M.R., M. Edwards, K. Powers, L. Hidmi and D.A. Lytle. (1999) "The Chemistry of New Copper Plumbing." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Salt Lake City, UT, November 5-9.

Spencer, C.M., M.R. Schock, M.DelToral and T.J. Sorg. (1999) "Regulatory Interactions of Concern to Small Water Systems with Emphasis on Maintaining Optimal Corrosion Control." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Chicago, IL, June 20-24.

Kelkar, U.G., B. Feighner and M.R. Schock. (1999) "Alternatives to Lime Softening for Copper Control in Small Water Systems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Chicago, IL, June 20-24.

Schock, M.R., T.R. Lovejoy, J. Holldber, J. Lowry and J. Egan.. (1999) "California's First Aeration Plants for Corrosion Control." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Tampa, FL, October 31-November 3.

Spencer, C.M., M.R. Schock, M.DelToral and T.J. Sorg. (1999) "Regulatory Interactions of Concern to Small Water Systems with Emphasis on Maintaining Optimal Corrosion Control." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Chicago, IL, June 20-24.

Sorg, T.J., M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1999) "Ion Exchange Softening: Effects on Metals Concentration." Journal of American Water Works Association, 91, 8:85.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1999) “The Significance of "Stagnation Curves" for Lead and Copper, and Water Quality Factors Affecting Them.” In: Abstract Proceedings 118th Annual Conference of the New England Water Works Association, Burlington, VT, Sept. 19-22.

Palit, A., S.O. Pehkonen and M. R. Schock. (1998) "Copper Corrosion: The Effect of Specific Inorganic Species in Drinking Water and the Evaluation of A Homogeneous Cu2O Film as a Corrosion Inhibitor using Simulated and Real Waters." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-4.

Clement, J.A. and M. R. Schock. (1998) "Buffer Intensity: What It Is, And Why It Is Critical for Solving Distribution System Water Quality Problems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-4.

Schock, M.R. and J.A. Clement. (1998) "Lead and Copper Control with Non-Zinc Orthophosphate." Journal New England Water Works Association, 112, 2:20.

US EPA. (1998) Sorg, T.J., M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. "Leaching of Metals from Household Plumbing Materials: Impact of Home Water Softners." Publications No. EPA/600/R-98/044.

Schock, M.R., J. Clement, D.A. Lytle, A.M. Sandvig and S.M. Harmon. (1998) “Replacing Polyphosphate with Silicate to Solve Problems with Lead, Copper and Source Water Iron.” In: Proceedings 1998 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-5.

Schock, M.R., L. Hidmi, M.A. Edwards and D.A. Lytle. (1998) “The Importance of Metastable Solids in Copper Release.” In: Proceedings Inorganics Contaminants Workshop, San Antonio, TX, February 23-24.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle, A.M. Sandvig and S.M. Harmon. (1997) "Improved Corrosion Control Using NanoFiltration with Limited Post-Treatment." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Diego, CA, November 1-4.

Boireau, A., G. Rnadon, J. Cavard, P. LeRoy, M.R. Schock, D.A. Lytle, and E. Singley. (1997) "Improved Corrosion Control Using NanoFiltration with Limited Post-Treatment ." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 12-19.

Larosa-Thompson, J. B.E. Scheetz, M.R. Schock, D.A. Lytle, and P.J. Delaney. (1997) "Improved Corrosion Control Using NanoFiltration with Limited Post-Treatment ." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Denver, CO, November 9-12.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and T.J. Sorg. (1996) “Controlling Lead Corrosion in the Drinking Water of a Building by Orthophosphate and Silicate Treatment.” Journal of New England Water Works Association, 110,3:202.

Oliphant, R. and M.R. Schock. (1996) "Copper Alloys and Solder." Chapter 6 in Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems, 2nd ed. American Water Works Association Research Foundation /DVGW-TZW Cooperative Research Report.

Edwards, M.A., M.R. Schock, and T.E. Meyer. (1996). “Alkalinity, pH, and Copper Corrosion By Product Release.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 88, 3: 81. exit EPA

Ferguson, J., O. von Franqué, and M.R. Schock. (1996). “Copper Corrosion.” Chapter 5 in Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems, 2nd ed., American Water Works Association Research Foundation /DVGW TZW Cooperative Research Report.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock, and T.J. Sorg. (1996). “Controlling Lead Corrosion in the Drinking Water of a Building by Orthophosphate and Silicate Treatment.” Journal of the New England Water Works Association , 110, 3: 202.

Schock, M.R., I. Wagner, and R. Oliphant. (1996). “The Corrosion and Solubility of Lead in Drinking Water.” Chapter 4 in Internal Corrosion of Water Distribution Systems, 2nd ed., American Water Works Association Research Foundation /DVGW TZW Cooperative Research Report.

Schock, M.R. and J.A. Clement. (1996) "Lead and Copper Control with Non-Zinc Orthophosphate." In Proceedings: US EPA/New England Water Works Association National Conference on Integrating Corrosion Control and Other Water Quality Goals, Cambridge, MA, May 19-21.

T.J. Sorg, M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1995) "An Evaluation of Ion Exchange Softening on the Leaching of Metals from Household Plumbing Systems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, June.

Lytle, D.A. (1995) “Investigation on Techniques and Control of Building Lead and Copper Corrosion by Orthophosphate and Silicate.” Presentation, 1995 NACE Corrosion Conference, Orlando, FL, March 26-31.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1995) “Control of Copper Corrosion of Household Plumbing Materials.” In: Abstract Proceedings of the 21st Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, April 4-6.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and J.A. Clement. (1995) "Application and Considerations of Aeration for Corrosion Control." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, New Orleans, LA, November 12-16.

US EPA. (1995) Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. "Effect of pH, DIC, Orthophosphate and Sulfate on Drinking Water Cuprosolvency" (PDF) (107 pp, 760 MB) Publication No. EPA/600/R-95/085 | Abstract

VitaÁs, A., M.C. Gardels, D.A. Lytle, M.R. Schock and T. J. Sorg. (1994) “Investigation of the Electrochemical Properties of Copper in Potable Water.” Latvijas Kimijas Zurnals, 1:66-77.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and T.J. Sorg. (1994) "Investigation on Techniques and Control of Building Lead and Copper Corrosion by Orthophosphate and Silicate." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, March 26-31.

Clement, J. A., M.R. Schock, and D.A. Lytle. (1994) “Controlling Lead and Copper Corrosion and Sequestering of Iron and Manganese.” In: Proceedings 1994 ASCE National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle and J.A. Clement. (1994) "Modeling Issues for Copper Solubility in Drinking Water." In Proceedings: American Society of Civil Engineers National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO, July 11-13.

Clement, J.A., L.L. Harms, and M.R. Schock. (1994) "The Water Chemistry of Lead Corrosion Control Strategies." In Proceedings: American Society of Civil Engineers National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO, July 11-13.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1994) "The Importance of Stringent Control of DIC and pH in Laboratory Corrosion Studies: Theory and Practice." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Francisco, CA, November 6-10.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “A Systematic Study on the Control of Lead in a New Building.” Presentation, 1994 ASCE National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO, July. Presentation, 1994 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, New York, NY, June 19-23.

Lytle, D.A. (1994) “Controlling Copper, Lead and Iron in Small Systems.” Presentation, 20th Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, March 15-17.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle and J.A. Clement. (1994) “Modeling Issues of Copper Solubility in Drinking Water.” In: Proceedings 1994 American Society of Civil Engineers National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO, July.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and T.J. Sorg. (1994) “A Systematic Study on the Control of Lead in a New Building.” In: Proceedings 1994 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, New York, NY, June 19-23.

Lytle, D.A. and J.A. Clement. (1994) “Controlling Copper, Lead and Iron in Small Systems. rdquo; In: Abstract Proceedings 20th Annual USEPA RREL Research Symposium, Cincinnati, OH, March 15-17.

US EPA. (1993) "Control of Lead and Copper in Drinking Water" (PDF) (115 pp, 12.1 MB)Publication No. EPA/525/R-93/001 | Abstract

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock, N. Dues, and P. Clark. (1993) “Preferential Dissolution of Lead From Solder Particulate Material.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 85, 7:104.

U.S. EPA. (1993). Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock, N. Dues, and P. Clark. “Investigating Preferential Dissolution of Lead From Solder Particulates.” Publication no. EPA/600/J-93/298. Journal of the American Water Works Association, 85, 7:104–110. Abstract

Schock, M.R. and G.K. George. (1993) "Evaluation of a Field Test Kit for Monitoring Lead in Drinking Water." Journal of American Water Works Association, 85, 8:90.

Lytle, D.A. (1993) “Impact of pH and Lead Composition on Metal Leaching from Brass Coupons.” Presentation, 1993 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX, June 6-10.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1993) “Impact of pH and Lead Composition on Metal Leaching from Brass Coupons.” In: Proceedings 1993 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX, June 6-10.

Clement, J., and D.A. Lytle. (1993) “Considerations for the Use of Polyphosphates and Silicates to Control Lead and Copper Based Corrosion.” In: Proceedings 1993 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, San Antonio, TX, June 6-10.

Sorg, T.J., D.A. Lytle and M.R.Schock. (1993) “Evaluation of Corrosion Inhibitors to Reduce Lead in the Drinking Water in Buildings.” In: Abstract Proceedings Nineteenth Annual USEPA RREL Hazardous Waste Research Symposium, USEPA Office of Research and Development, Washington, D.C., April.

Schock, M.R. and D.A. Lytle. (1992) “Corrosion Control Principles and Strategies for Reducing Lead and Copper in Drinking Water Systems.” In: Proceedings Water Quality Association Annual Convention and Exposition, Orlando, FL, March 11-15.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock and S. Tackett. (1992) "Metal Corrosion Coupon Contamination, Corrosion Study Design, and Interpretation Problems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Toronto, Canada, November 15-19.

Sorg, T.J., M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1991) “Evaluating Chemical Treatment to Reduce Lead in a Building: A Case Study.” In: Proceedings American Water Works Association/U.S. EPA National Workshop on Control of Lead and Copper in Drinking Water, Chicago, IL, September 23-25.

Holm, T.R. and M.R. Schock. (1991). “Potential Effects of Polyphosphate Water Treatment Products on Lead Solubility in Plumbing Systems.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 83, 7: 76. exit EPA

Wysock, B.M., M.R. Schock and J.A. Estman. (1991) "A Study of the Effect of Municipal Ion Exchange Softening on The Corrosion of Lead, Copper and Iron in Water Systems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Philadelphia, PA, June 16-20.

George, G.K. and M.R. Schock. (1991) "A Comprehensive Evaluation of a Field Test Kit for Lead." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Orlando, FL, November 10-14.

Sorg, T.J., M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1991) “Evaluating Chemical Treatment to Reduce Lead in a Building: A Case Study.” In: Proceedings American Water Works Association/U.S. EPA National Workshop on Control of Lead and Copper in Drinking Water, Chicago, IL, September 23-25.

Shock, M.R. (1990) "Internal Corrosion and Deposition Control." Chapter 17 in Water Quality and Treatment, 4th ed. Edited by American Water Works Association. McGraw-Hill.

Schock, M.R. (1990). “Causes of Temporal Variability of Lead in Domestic Plumbing Systems.” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 15, 59.

Neff, C.H. and M.R. Schock. (1990) "Monitoring Lead Concentrations and Treatment Effects in Public Water Supplies." NACE Corrosion/90, Las Vegas, NV.

Schock, M.R. (1989) "Understanding Corrosion Control Strategies for Lead." Journal of American Water Works Association, 81, 7:88.

Schock, M.R. and K.W. Smothers. (1989) "X-Ray, Microscope and Wet Chemical Technique: A Complementary Team for Deposit Analysis." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 12-16.

Holms, T.R., S.H. Smothers, Z. Xiaofeng and M.R. Schock. (1989) "Polyphosphate Water-Treatment Products: Their Effects on the Chemistry and Solubility of Lead in Potable Water Systems." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, Philadelphia, PA, Nov 12-16.

Levin, R., M.R. Schock and A. Marcus. In Proceedings: 23rd Annual Conference on Truce Substance in Environmental Health, Cincinnati, OH, May 30-June 1.

Schock, M.R., R. Levin and D.D. Cox. (1988) "The Significance of Sources of Temporal Variability of Lead in Corrosion Evaluation and Monitoring Program Design." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, St. Louis, MO May 30-June 1.

US EPA. (1987) Sanderson, E.W., M.R. Schock and J.I. Marden. "Relationship Between Water Quality and Corrosion of Plumbing Materials in Buildings." Publications No. EPA/600/52-87/036.

Schock, M.R. (1984) "Treatment or Water Quality Adjustment to Attain MCL's in Metallic Potable Water Plumbing Systems." In Proceedings: US EPA Seminar on Plumbing Materials and Drinking Water Quality, Cincinnati, OH May 16-17.

Schock, M.R. and S.C. Schock. (1982) "Response of Lead Solubility to Dissolved Carbonate in Drinking Water." Journal of American Water Works Association, 73,3:36.

Schock, M.R. and C.H. Neff. (1982) "Chemical Aspects of Internal Corrosion: Theory, Prediction and Monitoring." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference X, Nashville, Tennessee, Dec 5-8.

Schock, M.R. R.W. Buelow and P.J. Clark. (1981) "Evaluation and Control of Asbestos-Cement Pipe Corrosion." Paper No. 72, NACE Corrosion/81, Toronto, Canada.

Gardels, M.C. and M.R. Schock. (1981) "Corrosion Indices: Invalid or Invaluable?" In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference IX, Seattle, Washington.

Schock, M.R. and R.B. Mercer. (1977) "Direct Determination of Copper, Manganese and Iron in Soils and Sediments Using Secondary Absorption Lines." Atomic Absorption Newsletter, 16:30. Errata 16:69 (1977).

Schock, M.R. and M. Gardels. Plumbosolvency Reduction by High-pH and Low-Carbonate Solubility Relationships – Abstract

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Metal Dissolution

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2003) “The Effect of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon on the Properties of Iron Colloidal Suspensions.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 52,3:165-180.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2000) “Impact of Stagnation Time on Metal Dissolution from Plumbing Materials in Drinking Water.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 49,10:243-257.

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2000). “Impact of Stagnation Time on Metal Dissolution From Plumbing Materials in Drinking Water.” Aqua, 49, 5: 243–257. Abstract

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (1997) “The Impact of Stagnation Time on the Dissolution of Metal from Plumbing Materials.” In: Proceedings 1997 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 12-19.

Sorg, T.J., M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1995) “An Evaluation of Ion Exchange Softening on the Leaching of Metals From Household Plumbing Materials.” In: Proceedings 1995 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, June 18-22.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock, N. Dues and P. Clark. (1993) “Preferential Dissolution of Lead from Solder Particulate Material.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 85,7:104-110.

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Monitoring

US EPA. Royer, M.D. (2005 ) White Paper on Improvement of Structural Integrity Monitoring for Drinking Water Mains (PDF) (58 pp, 185 KB) (EPA/600/R-05/038) – Abstract

Holm, T.R. and M.R. Schock. (2003). “Are We Monitoring in the Right Places for Metals and Radionuclides?” Journal of the New England Water Works Association, 141, 2: 102.exit EPA

Rice, E.W., K.R. Fox, R.J. Miltner, D.A. Lytle, and C.H. Johnson. (1996) “Evaluating Water Treatment Performance Using a Microbial Surrogate System.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 88,9:122-130.

Schock, M.R., R. Levin and D.D. Cox. (1988) "The Significance of Sources of Temporal Variability of Lead in Corrosion Evaluation and Monitoring Program Design." In Proceedings: American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, St. Louis, MO May 30-June 1.

Garske, E.E. and M.R. Schock. (1986) " An Inexpensive Flow-Through Cell and Measurement System for Monitoring Selected Chemical Parameters in Ground Water." Monitoring Review, 6:79.

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Research Products

Search the Environmental Information Management System for Research Products

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Scale

Lytle, D.A., T.L. Gerke and J.B. Maynard. (2005) “Effect of Bacterial Sulfate Reduction on Iron-corrosion Scales.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 97,10:109-120.

Sarin, P., V.L. Snoeyink, D.A. Lytle and W.M. Kriven. (2004) “Iron Corrosion Scales: Model for Scale Growth, Iron Release and Colored Water Formation.” Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130:364-373.

Lytle, D.A. (2004) "Geochemistry of Sulfur in Iron Corrosion Scales Found in Drinking Water Distribution Systems." Presentation, the 2004 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 11-14.

Lytle, D.A. , T.L. Gerke and J.B. Maynard. (2004) "Geochemistry of Sulfur in Iron Corrosion Scales Found in Drinking Water Distribution Systems." In: Proceedings 2004 American Water Works Association Water Quality Technology Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 11-14.

Snoeyink, V.L., M.R. Schock, P. Sarin, et al. (2003). “Aluminum-Containing Scales in Water Distribution Systems: Prevalence and Composition.” Aqua, 52, 7: 455–474. Abstract

Snoeyink, V.L. , P. Sarin and D.A. Lytle. (2003) “Iron Release and Colored Water Formation from Iron Scales.” In: Proceedings 2003 American Water Works Association Annual Conference, Anaheim, CA, June 15-19.

Sarin, P., K. Jim, D.A. Lytle, M.A. Beckett, W.M. Kriven, V.L. Snoeyink and J.A. Clement. (1999) “Systematic Study of Corrosion Scales and Their Release of Iron Particles in Drinking Water.” In: Proceedings 1999 American Water Works Assocation/USEPA Particle Measurement and Characterization in Drinking Water Treatment Symposium, Nashville, TN, March 28-30.

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Solubility

Lytle, D.A. and M.R. Schock. (2006) "The Solubility and Surface Chemistry of Freshly Precipitated Copper Solids" (PDF) (15 pp, 3 MB) Presentation, American Water Works Association ACE, San Antonio, TX, June 11-15.

Shock, M.R. (2004) "Solubility (Speciation) Models and Their Limitations" (PDF) (44 pp, 2.1 MB) Presentation, ACE.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2003) “The Effect of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon on the Properties of Iron Colloidal Suspensions.” Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – Aqua, 52,3:165-180.

Lytle, D.A. (2002) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Properties of Iron Particles and Suspensions.” Presentation, University of Illinois Student Symposium, Champaign, IL, December 11.

Lytle, D.A. and V.L. Snoeyink. (2002) “Effect of Ortho- and Polyphosphates on the Properties of Iron Particles and Suspensions.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 94,10:87-99.

Lytle, D.A. (2000) “The Effect of Water Chemistry on the Physical Properties of Iron Colloids and Aqueous Iron Suspensions.” Presentation, 2000 American Water Works Association International Distribution System Symposium, Denver, CO, June 9-10.

Sorg, T.J., M.R. Schock and D.A. Lytle. (1999) “Ion Exchange Softening: Effects on Metal Concentrations.” Journal of American Water Works Association, 91,8:85-97.

Schock, M.R., D.A. Lytle and J.A. Clement. (1994) “Modeling Issues of Copper Solubility in Drinking Water.” In: Proceedings 1994 American Society of Civil Engineers National Conference on Environmental Engineering, Boulder, CO, July.

Lytle, D.A., M.R. Schock, J.U. Doerger and N. Dues. (1993) “Beryllium Determination of Beryllium in Drinking Water by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS).” Journal of American Water Works Association, 85,2:77-83.

Schock, M.R. and M. Gardels. Plumbosolvency Reduction by High-pH and Low-Carbonate Solubility Relationships – Abstract

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