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Pump & Treat Remediation for Ground Water Cleanups

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"Presumptive Response Strategy and Ex-Situ Treatment Technologies for Contaminated Ground Water at CERCLA Sites, Final Guidance," October 1996.
OSWER Publication 9283.1-12, EPA/540/R-96/023, NTIS Order Number PB96-963508, 39p.
Available on-line from OSWER HTML

This guidance outlines the "phased approach" strategy for addressing contaminated ground water. The strategy integrates the site characterization, early actions, remedy selection, design, implementation, and performance monitoring phases. The strategy emphasizes ways to select acheivable remedial objectives and ways to optimize the selected remedy so that it is more effective, less costly, and takes less time. The guidance also identifies presumptive technologies for treatment of extracted ground water, which are to be used to streamline the Feasibility Study for sites which evaluate pump and treat remedies.

""Guide to Discharging CERCLA Aqueous Wastes to Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTWs)," March 1991.
OSWER Publication 9330.2-13FS, NTIS Order Number PB91-921364, 5p.
Available on-line from OSWER PDF (5 pp, 108K)

This guide provides a quick reference to the statutory, policy, administrative, and technical factors involved in discharging aqueous wastes generated during Superfund response actions to a POTW. It also provides references for more extensive guidance on this topic.

"Discharge of Wastewater from CERCLA Sites into POTWs," April 15, 1886.
OSWER Memorandum 9330.2-4, 5p.
Available on-line from OSWER PDF (5 pp, 325K)

Other Reports:

"A Systematic Approach for Evaluation of Capture Zones at Pump and Treat Systems EPA 600-R-08-003," January 2008.
Available on-line from ADA PDF (166 pp, 18M)

This  document  describes  a  systematic approach for performing capture zone analysis associated with ground-water pump and treat (P&T) systems. This  analysis  is meant to determine the zone of hydraulic control of a P&T  system.  The  intended  audience  for  this  document  is technical professionals   that  actually  perform  capture  zone  analyses  (i.e., hydrogeologists, engineers) as well as project managers who review those analyses and/or make decisions based on those analyses.

"Elements for Effective Management of Operating Pump and Treat Systems," November 2002. OSWER 9355.4-27FS-A, 22p.
Available on-line from OSWER PDF (22 pp, 547K)

Summarizes key aspects of effective management for operating groundwater pump and treat systems, based on lessons learned from conductingremedy optimization evaluations at 20 Superfund sites. Includesdiscussion of setting system goals and evaluating cleanup progress, aswell as evaluating remedy performance and cost effectiveness.

"Design Guidelines for Conventional Pump-and-Treat Systems," September 1997.
ORD and OSWER joint Publication EPA/540/S-97/504, EPA-68-C4-0031, NTIS Order Number PB98-115389INZ, 44p.
Available on-line from OSWER HTML

These technical guidelines discuss pump and treat (P&T) remediation strategies (including hydraulic containment, restoration, and mixed objectives); site characterization considerations for P&T design; capture zone analysis for P&T design; extraction/ injection scheme design; components of a P&T system; selection of treatment technologies; and performance monitoring.

"Pump-and-Treat Ground-Water Remediation: A Guide for Decision Makers and Practitioners," July 1996.
Office of Research and Development Publication EPA/625/R-95/005, NTIS Order Number PB97-154009, 76p.
Available on-line from ORD PDF ( 76 pp, 2.5M)

This report addresses: when pump-and-treat is appropriate and how to apply it in a "smart" fashion; how to anticipate tailing and rebound; how to make hydraulic containment more effective; performance measurement and optimization; and when to use variations and alternatives to pump-and-treat. The report includes discussions of both traditional and enhanced or innovative uses of pump and treat, and combinations of pump-and-treat with in-situ methods. It recognizes that total plume restoration through pump-and-treat will be possible at a small number of sites, but parts of plumes can be totally restored at many sites using this method.

"Ground Water Issue: Chemical Enhancements to Pump-and-Treat Remediation," January 1992.
OSWER Publication EPA/540/S-92/001, NTIS Order Number PB92-180074CDH, 20p.
Available on-line from OSWER PDF (20 pp, 370K)

This document explores the use of chemical enhancements to improve ground-water remediation efficiencies using pump-and-treat technologies, and points out arenas of contamination where such techniques are not practical, in an attempt to address the protracted period of time to make significant reductions in contaminants at many ground water treatment sites.

"Evaluation of Ground-Water Extraction Remedies: Phase II," February 1992.
Vol. 1: OSWER Publication 9355.4-05, NTIS Order Number PB92-963346, 37p.
Available on-line from OSWER PDF (37 pp, 426K)

Vol. 2: OSWER Publication 9355.4-05A, NTIS Order Number PB92-963347, 450p.
Available on-line from OSWER PDF (450 pp, 25M)

This report is the second phase of a study to evaluate the effectiveness of ground-water extraction systems being used to remediate contaminated aquifers at hazardous waste sites. "Volume 1: Summary Report" contains an executive summary and chapters which discuss the purpose, methodologies, and conclusion of the project. It also summarizes the conclusions from Phase I of the project. The second phase of the study puts special emphasis on nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). "Volume 2: Case Studies" contains the individual analyses of each of the 24 sites associated with the project.

"Basics of Pump-and-Treat Ground-Water Remediation Technology," March 1990.
Office of Research and Development Publication EPA/600/8-90/003, NTIS Order Number PB90-274549, 55p.
Available to order HTML.

This report provides basic information on how to use available hydrogeological and chemical data to determine when, where, and how pump-and-treat technology can be used successfully to contain and/or remediate plumes. It also discusses ways to estimate cleanup times and addresses practical limitations of pump-and-treat. The report emphasizes the "pump" part of "pump-and-treat", including estimating discharge rates and concentration loadings. Treatment strategies and policy questions are not discussed. The report assumes some basic familiarity with hydrogeological concepts. It includes a section on operation and maintenance of pump-and-treat systems and a glossary of terms.

See also:

"Methods for Monitoring Pump-and-Treat Performance," June 1994. (described under "Performance Evaluation")


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