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Reforms By Round

The drive toward a faster, fairer, more efficient Superfund

The Superfund Reforms consist of three rounds of initiatives and pilots that EPA officials developed within CERCLA's existing statutory framework. The first round of reforms have already been incorporated into the Superfund program. Today, EPA continues to implement the Round 2 and Round 3 reforms, which have provided a comprehensive and flexible way to improve the program.

NOTE: For additional information on unfamiliar terms referenced on this Web site, please consult the Superfund Reforms glossary.

Round 1

In June 1993, EPA's Administrator announced a series of 17 initiatives designed to strengthen the Superfund program within the existing statutory framework. This first round of Superfund Reforms expanded public involvement and aimed to improve the pace, cost, and fairness of the program. Round 1 was considered complete after EPA issued a closeout report in February 1995.

Round 2

With Round 1 complete, EPA introduced a second round of reforms in February 1995. The Agency based many of the reforms on principles embodied in the Superfund Reform Act of 1994. The second round of reforms sought to administratively test or implement many of the proposal's innovations through both pilot projects and new or revised Agency guidance. This round strengthened and improved the program through initiatives in enforcement, economic redevelopment, public involvement and environmental justice, innovative technology, and State and Tribal empowerment.

Round 3

EPA introduced the third and final round of Superfund Reforms in October 1995. Through a group of 20 initiatives, this round took a "common sense" approach to reform and targeted the concerns of diverse stakeholders. Several reforms in this final round focused on making cleanup decisions more cost-effectiveand protective of human health and the environment. Other initiatives aimed to reduce litigation and transaction costs, and to keep States and communities more informed and involved in cleanup decisions.

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