Class V wells use injection techniques different from those used by wells in other classes. Although some Class V wells are technologically advanced disposal systems used by industry, most are “low-tech” holes in the ground. The typical Class V well is shallow and relies on gravity to drain or inject liquid waste into the ground.
There are over 20 different Class V Well types. Well types can be subdivided based on how the wells are used. Sample categories include drainage wells, used for storm water and agricultural irrigation, and domestic wastewater disposal wells. The linked information below provides information on the different Class V well types. Additional information is provided for Large Capacity Cesspools and Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells because these wells pose increased threats to underground sources of drinking water and are subject to additional regulations. Large Capacity Septic Systems and Storm Water Drainage Wells are given additional emphasis here because these are two of the most common Class V well types found in the United States. Each page provided by the links below can help you determine the type of well you may have. The information provided explains the regulations that pertain to the well type and identifies sources of additional help.
- Large-Capacity Septic Systems
- Motor Vehicle Waste Disposal Wells
- Large-Capacity Cesspools
- Storm Water Drainage Wells
To better understand Class V wells, EPA conducted a study in 1999. The Underground Injection Control Study includes national and State estimates on the number, type, and contamination potential for Class V wells in the United States. The study also presents information on where these wells are located, what is injected into them, and how states regulate them. The fact sheets listed below include the other subtypes of Class V wells.
You will need Adobe Reader to view some of the files on this page. See EPA's PDF page to learn more.
- Class V Underground Injection Control Study
- Agricultural Drainage (PDF) (1 pg, 152K)
- Aquaculture (PDF) (1 pg, 157K)
- Aquifer Recharge/Recovery (PDF) 2009 (1 pg, 37K)
- Aquifer Recharge/Recovery (PDF) 1999 (1 pg, 157K)
- Aquifer Remediation (PDF) 1999 (1 pg, 152K)
- Carwashes (PDF) (1 pg, 154K)
- Experimental (PDF) (1 pg, 153K)
- Food Processing Disposal (PDF) (1 pg, 153K)
- Geothermal Direct Heat Return Flow (PDF) (1 pg, 155K)
- Geothermal Electric Power (PDF) (1 pg, 148K)
- Heat Pump/Air Conditioning Return Flow (PDF) (1 pg, 157K)
- In-Situ Fossil Fuel Recovery (PDF) (1 pg, 148K)
- Large-Capacity Septic Systems (PDF) (1 pg, 132K)
- Laundromats without dry cleaning facilities (PDF) (1 pg, 146K)
- Mine Backfill (PDF) (1 pg, 152K)
- Noncontact Cooling Water (PDF) (1 pg, 151K)
- Salt Water Intrusion Barrier (PDF) (1 pg, 148K)
- Sewage Treatment Effluent (PDF) (1 pg, 157K)
- Solution Mining (PDF) (1 pg, 148K)
- Special Drainage (PDF) (1 pg, 156K)
- Spent Brine Return Flow (PDF) (1 pg, 147K)
- Storm Water Drainage (PDF) (1 pg, 164K)
- Subsidence Control (PDF) (1 pg, 150K)