ACTIVE INGREDIENT (A.I.): The chemical or substance component of a pesticide product that can kill,repel, attract, mitigate or control a pest or that acts as a plant growth regulator, desiccant, or nitrogen stabilizer. The remainder of a formulated pesticide product consists of one or more inert ingredients (such as water, solvents, emulsifiers, surfactants, clay and propellants), which are there for reasons other than pesticidal activity.
AGRICULTURAL USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Pesticides applied by owner/operators and custom/commercial applicators to farms and facilities involved in production of raw agricultural commodities, principally food, fiber, and tobacco; includes non-crop and post-harvest use as well as crop/field applications.
CERTIFIED APPLICATOR: A person who is authorized to apply restricted-use pesticides as result of meeting requirements for certification under FIFRA-mandated programs. Applicator certification programs are conducted by states, territories and tribes in accordance with national standards set by EPA. Restricted use pesticides may be used only by or under the direct supervision of specially trained and certified applicators.
COMMERCIAL APPLICATOR: A person applying pesticides as part of a business applying pesticides for hire or a person applying pesticides as part of his or her job with another (not for hire) type of business, organization or agency. Commercial applicators often are certified, but need to be so only if they use restricted-use pesticides.
CONVENTIONAL PESTICIDES: Pesticides that are chemicals or other substances developed and produced primarily or only for use as pesticides. The term is generally used in reference to active ingredients. An example is DDT, which was developed and used almost exclusively as a pesticide.
ECONOMIC USER SECTORS (OR MARKETS): In this report, estimates of quantities used and user expenditures for pesticides are broken out separately for the three general economic user sectors (or markets) as follows: agriculture, industrial/commercial/governmental, and home/garden. These three sectors/markets are defined elsewhere in this glossary.
FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, which is involved in regulation of pesticides in the U.S., particularly enforcement of tolerances in food and feed products.
FFDCA: Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act is the law which controls pesticide residues in food and feed, along with FIFRA.
FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act is the law which generally controls pesticide sale and use.
HOME AND GARDEN USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Involves pesticides applied by homeowners to homes and gardens, including lawns; single and multiple unit housing. Does not include pesticides for home/garden applications by professional applicators.
INDUSTRIAL/COMMERCIAL/GOVERNMENTAL USER SECTOR (OR MARKET): Involves pesticides applied by professional applicators (by owner/operators/employees and custom/commercial applicators) to industrial, commercial and governmental facilities, buildings, sites, and land; plus custom/commercial applications to homes and gardens, including lawns. May also be referred to as professional market for pesticides.
NON-AGRICULTURAL SECTORS: General term which refers to a combination of home/garden and industrial/commercial/governmental sectors.
OTHER PESTICIDE CHEMICALS: Chemicals registered as pesticides but which are produced and marketed mostly for other purposes, i.e., multi-use chemicals. Notable examples are sulfur, petroleum products (e.g., kerosene, oils and distillates), salt and sulfuric acid.
PESTICIDE: May be used to refer to an active ingredient (as defined above) or formulated pesticide product registered under FIFRA.
PESTICIDE USER EXPENDITURES: Dollar value of purchases by persons or businesses applying pesticides, such as farmers, commercial pesticide applicators and homeowners. Reported numbers are nominal values for the years indicated, i.e., not adjusted or indexed for inflation.
PESTICIDE USAGE: Refers to actual applications of pesticides, generally in terms of quantity applied or units treated.
PRIVATE APPLICATOR: A category of applicator certification for farmers and/or employees such that they can legally apply restricted use pesticides or supervise others doing so who are not certified.
PROFESSIONAL MARKET: Sales of pesticides for application to industrial/commercial/governmental sectors, homes and gardens by certified/commercial applicators.
SAFER PESTICIDES: Pesticides designated as safer (or reduced-risk) by EPA due to favorable characteristics affecting health or environmental risks, resistance management and integrated pest management. Safer pesticides may be conventional pesticides posing less risk or be biopesticides with unique modes of action, low use volume, lower toxicity, target species specificity or natural occurrence.
SPECIALTY BIOCIDES: In this report, estimates are provided for end uses as follows: swimming pools, spas and industrial water treatment (excludes chlorine/hypochlorites which are reported separately); disinfectants and sanitizers (including industrial/institutional applications and household cleaning products); and other specialty biocides (including biocides for adhesives and sealants, leather, synthetic latex polymers, metal working fluids, paints and coatings, petroleum products, plastics and textiles). These are categories of end usage which are covered by FIFRA. There are other end uses of specialty biocides which are regulated under FFDCA and are not covered in this report. (such as hospital/medical antiseptics, food/feed preservatives and for cosmetics/toiletries).
TOLERANCE: The maximum amount of a pesticide allowable in a food or feed product before it is considered adulterated, usually specified in parts per million.
USDA: U.S. Department of Agriculture
WOOD PRESERVATIVES: Pesticide active ingredients used in treatment of wood to protect it from insects, fungi and other pests. In this report, a total is presented for usage of wood preservative chemicals in industrial plants, the bulk of which is for pressure treatment. The major categories of pesticide chemicals included in this report as industrial wood preservatives are water borne preservatives (primarily arsenicals), oil borne preservatives (such as copper naphthenate and pentachlorophenol), creosote, creosote-coal tar and creosote petroleum.