Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)
CCA Table of Contents
Chemical Review Manager: Lance Wormell (email@example.com), 703-603-0523
Current as of July 2011
EPA has completed its reregistration eligibility decisions (RED) for the heavy duty wood preservatives chromated arsenicals, pentachlorophenol, and creosote. In general, EPA has determined that the compounds contribute benefits to society and are eligible for reregistration provided the mitigation measures and associated label changes identified in the REDs are implemented and required data are submitted. In its risk assessments, the Agency identified risks of concern associated with occupational exposure (i.e., treatment plant workers) to all three preservatives and ecological exposure to pentachlorophenol and creosote.
Chromated copper arsenate (CCA) is a chemical wood preservative containing chromium, copper and arsenic. CCA is used in pressure treated wood to protect wood from rotting due to insects and microbial agents. EPA has classified CCA as a restricted use product, for use only by certified pesticide applicators.
CCA has been used to pressure treat lumber since the 1940s. Since the 1970s, the majority of the wood used in outdoor residential settings has been CCA-treated wood. Pressure treated wood containing CCA is no longer being produced for use in most residential settings, including decks and playsets.
The Agency has completed its reregistration eligibility decision (RED) and will continue to work with stakeholders to implement its decision. Pesticide manufacturers to voluntarily phased out certain CCA use for wood products around the home and in children's play areas. Effective December 31, 2003, no wood treater or manufacturer may treat wood with CCA for residential uses, with certain exceptions.
- September 25, 2008 – Chromated Arsenicals Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) signed.
- November 19, 2008 – Announce availability of RED in Federal Register
- March 31, 2009 – Updated product labels reflecting mitigation to be submitted to EPA
- December 31, 2013 – All treatment plants to be upgraded to reflect measures outlined in RED
|Reregistration Eligibility Decision|
Reregistration Eligbility Decision (RED) for Chromated Arsenicals (Case 0132), September 25, 2008
|Alternatives/Other Wood Preservatives|
There are several arsenic-free wood pressure treatment alternatives to CCA, as well as several building material alternatives to pressure treated wood, already on the market.
- Other Wood Preservatives
- The USDA Forest Service provides a list of wood preservative alternatives.
|Coatings (Sealant) Studies|
EPA and the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) conducted two-year studies (August 2003-August 2005) of the effectiveness of coatings in preventing leaching of arsenic from CCA-treated wood. Both studies examined whether or not the application of different wood sealants on CCA-treated wood affects the amount of CCA residues to which an individual may be exposed. The data suggest that application of penetrating stains and coatings to decks or other residential CCA-treated structures at least once a year can reduce potential exposure to arsenic.
CPSC released its draft final report in October 2006. EPA’s Science Advisory Panel (SAP) submitted its final report on the EPA and CPSC studies in January 2007.
The data demonstrate the SAP report suggested more definitive studies are needed. They also invited the coatings industry to develop products with specific characteristics intended to reduce dislodgeable arsenic.
- EPA /CPSC Study Results: Studies Evaluating the Impact of Surface Coatings on the Level of Dislodgeable Arsenic, Chromium and Copper from Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-Treated Wood (PDF) (31 pp, 128k, About PDF) - January 2007.
- CPSC Study Results: Evaluation of Effectiveness of Surface Coatings in Reducing Dislodgeable Arsenic from New Wood Pressure-Treated with Chromated Copper Arsenate (PDF) (50 pp, 1.9 MB, About PDF) - Draft Final Report, October 2006.
- News Release: Studies Provide Public With Updated Information on CCA-Treated Playground and Decks - May 11, 2005
- Questions and Answers: CCA-Treated Wood Sealant Studies (Interim Results) - May 11, 2005
- Sealant Study (Interim Data Report) Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Coatings in Reducing Dislodgeable Arsenic, Chromium, and Copper from CCA Treated Wood (PDF) (186 pp, 12.6 MB, About PDF) - May 9, 2005
- Wipe Comparison Report: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Coatings in Reducing Dislodgeable Arsenic, Chromium, and Copper from CCA Treated Wood (PDF) (42 pp, 979k, About PDF) - May 9, 2005
- CPSC Study
- Sealant Study (Protocol): Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Coatings in Reducing Dislodgeable Arsenic, Chromium, and Copper from CCA Treated Wood (PDF) (111 pp, 1.58 MB, About PDF) - September 2003
- Consumer Information
- CCA-Pressure Treated Wood: Guidance for Outdoor Wooden Structures (June 2011)
- Consumer Safety Information Sheet - Inorganic Arsenical Pressure-Treated Wood - Provides information on the safer use and handling of CCA-treated wood.
- Consumer Awareness Program (CAP)
- Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
- Wood Mulch Derived from Waste Lumber Preserved with Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)
- Guidance Document for Revised CCA Label
- Supplemental Guidance on Interpretation of Revised CCA Wood Preservative Label (PDF) (16 pp, 165k, About PDF)
- Guidance for Uses of CCA Referencing AWPA Commodity Standards - June 16, 2004
- Questions and Answers - June 17, 2004
- Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Compliance
Strategy (PDF) (9 pp, 26k, About PDF) - Office of Enforcement and Compliance Assurance (OECA), June 22, 2004.
- Treated Wood End Tag Samples (PDF) (1 pp, 63k, About PDF)
|Risk Assessments & Reviews|
- Evaluating the Wood Preservative Chromated
Copper Arsenate (CCA) - Describes EPA's comprehensive reassessment
of the science and uses of CCA, along with some key issues under consideration.
- Final Risk Assessment for Wood Preservatives Containing Arsenic and/or
Chromium Reregistration Eligibility Decision (for workers)
- Final Risk Assessment - available from Regulations.gov. Docket Number: EPA-HQ-OPP-2003-0250.
- Federal Register Notice of Availability (November 19, 2008)
- Risk Assessment for Workers
Who Contact Wood Preservatives Containing Arsenic and/or Chromium
and Ecological Effects Assessment (September 2008)
- Risk Assessment for Children Who Contact Chromated Copper Arsenate
(CCA) Treated Playsets and Decks
- Final Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Children Who Contact CCA-Treated Playsets and Decks - April 2008
- Draft Sampling Protocols for Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Pressure-Treated Playground Equipment and Related Soil
- Manufacturers to Use New Wood Preservatives, Replacing Most Residential Uses of Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) - Press Release about this transition publicized on February 12, 2002
- Notice of Receipt of Requests to Cancel Certain Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Wood Preservative Products and Amend to Terminate Certain Uses of CCA Products Products (Federal Register: February 22, 2002) (residential use voluntary cancellation request)
- Response to Requests to Cancel Certain Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Wood Preservative Products and Amendments to Terminate Certain Uses of other CCA Products (Federal Register: April 9, 2003)
- Notice of Receipt of Requests to Cancel a Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Use and to Amend Current Label Language (Federal Register: September 8, 2004) (request to clarify certain marine uses)
|Report an Incident|
If you believe you are suffering possible adverse effects from working with CCA-treated wood, you should immediately contact your medical provider. For further information, and to report incidents to the EPA, please contact the National Pesticide Information Center at 1-800-858-7378, or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
|For More Information|
- Agency for Toxic Substances
and Disease Registry (ATSDR) - ATSDR has established a series of summaries about hazardous
substances, including arsenic. Each summary serves as a quick and easy-to-understand
guide. Answers are provided to the most frequently asked questions about
exposure to hazardous substances found around hazardous waste sites
and the effects of exposure on human health.
- Canada's Pest Management Regulatory
- EPA is conducting a joint review with Canada to evaluate
all three heavy duty wood preservatives (i.e., CCA, pentachlorophenol,
and creosote). The preliminary risk assessment is a cooperative reevaluation
between the US EPA and Health Canada's PMRA under NAFTA. Both countries
have contributed to the study review and peer review process. Exposure
data used in the preliminary risk assessment were collected from both
US and Canadian wood-treatment facilities and both countries are participating
in the public comment process. As the assessments are finalized, EPA
will continue to work closely with Canada since the goal of these efforts
is to develop science and regulatory conclusions amenable to both agencies.
- Fact Sheet on Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) Treated Wood (PDF) (12 pp, 92k, About PDF)
- Canadian CCA Consumer Awareness Program
- National Pesticide Information Center
- NPIC, a cooperative effort of Oregon State University
and EPA, provides objective, science-based information about a wide
variety of pesticide-related subjects: pesticide products, recognition
and management of pesticide poisoning, toxicology, and environmental
- U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission
(CPSC) - CPSC is an independent Federal regulatory agency that
works to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths from consumer products.
CPSC has jurisdiction over about 15,000 types of consumer products,
from automatic-drip coffee makers to toys to lawn mowers. This site
includes information on a petition from the Environmental Working Group
and the Healthy Building Network to ban arsenic-treated wood in children's
- US EPA's Office
of Water - Arsenic Assessment - The US Safe Drinking Water Act requires
EPA to revise the existing 50 parts per billion (ppb) standard for arsenic
in drinking water. This site provides information on EPA's assessment
of arsenic in drinking water.
- US Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Commodity Summaries of Arsenic - The USGS serves the Nation as an independent fact-finding agency that collects, monitors, analyzes, and provides scientific understanding about natural resource conditions, issues, and problems. This page provides information about arsenic as a commodity.