CALIFORNIA CORN (Northern)
The field used to represent corn production in California is located in Stanislaus / San Joaquin Counties in the Central Valley, although the crop is grown in other areas of the state. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, California is not among the top twenty corn producing states in the U.S. The crop is generally planted the early Spring (April) and harvested from July thru August. Continuous corn is practice is much of the region, however, rotation with other crops does occur. Planting depth and row spacing (generally 30 inches) follows general practices for the U.S. The crop is rarely grown under irrigation. The soil selected to simulate the field is a Madera loam. Madera loam is a, fine, smectitic, thermic Abruptic Durixeralfs. These soils are often used for dry farmed grains as well as for irrigated cropland such as alfalfa, almonds, grapes, oranges, rice and tomatoes. Madera loam is a well to moderately well drained, very slowly permeable, medium to very slow runoff soil formed in old alluvium derived from granite rock sources. They are on undulating low terraces with slopes of 0 to 9 percent. They are generally found at elevations of less than 250 feet above sea level and are known for the formation of vernal pools during the winter months. The soils are extensive in MLRA 17. Madera loam is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - Northern: Sacramento, CA (W23232)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - Northern: Sacramento, CA (W23232)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.73||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.45 cm C- 1||PRZM Manual Table 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||15.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.34 tons EI-1*||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992) and FARM Manual (EPA. 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.79||Haan and Barfield, 1979|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.00||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||1||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||4.5%||Mid-point of slope range for soils series Madera (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992)|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - Sacramento, CA (W23232)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.25||Maximum recommended value for grass (EPA, 2001)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||90 cm||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992)|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||100||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992)|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|08/04||Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops (USDA, 1984)|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|27/07||Based on 110 day maturation for CA Field Corn|
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|08/09||Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops (USDA, 1984)|
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||89, 86, 87||Gleams Manual Table A.3, Fallow = Fallow SR/CT, poor condition; Cropping and Residue = Row Crop SR/CT/Poor (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.023||RUSLE Project, C21CGBDC- Sacramento corn conventional tillage (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.018 - 0.611||RUSLE Project; C21CGBDC- Sacramento corn conventional tillage. Variable with date (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||4 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, Third and Fourth Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3,4)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)|
|Initial Water Content (THETO)|
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)|
|Field Capacity (THEFC)|
|Wilting Point (THEWP)|
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
Burns. 1992. Burns, L.A., (Coordinator), B.W. Allen, Jr., M.C. Barber, S.L. Bird, J.M. Cheplick, M.J. Fendley, D.R. Hartel, C.A. Kittner, F.L. Mayer, Jr., L.A. Suarez, and S.E. Wooten. Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment, Version 3.0. (PIRANHA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. 1992.
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1984. Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops, Statistical Reporting Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook #628, pp.78.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).