FLORIDA TOMATO (Vegetables)
The field used to represent tomato (vegetable) production in Florida is located in Manatee (#1 producing Florida county), Collier and Lee Counties in Southwest Florida (MLRA 155), although tomato production areas include other regions of Florida such as the Everglades Agricultural Area and west-central and south-eastern regions. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, Florida is the major producer of truck crops and is the highest producer of fresh market tomatoes in the U.S. Tomatoes and other truck crops are generally grown on "muck soils," but tomatoes do as well on sandy soils. Tomatoes are planted by direct seeding and seedling transplant in Florida, with more than half by seedling transplant. Typical planting distances are 48 to 72 inches between rows (72 inches being the most common) and 12 to 24 inches between plants in a row (18 inches being the most common). Maximum density of plants is approximately 4840 plants per acre. Fields are often laser-leveled and drainage controlled by a series of in-field laterals and perimeter canals. Stakes, approximately 4 feet in length, are place between two plants, 2-3 weeks after transplanting. Tomato plants are pruned during the growing season to optimize fruit production. Nearly all of the State's tomato crop is grown on plastic mulched, raised beds, using stake culture and drip or seep irrigation. Nearly all tomatoes grown in Florida receive supplemental irrigation during the growing season. The most active harvest period is from November through June. The soil selected to simulate the field is a Riviera sand. Riviera sand is a loamy, siliceous, active, hyperthermic Arenic Glossaqualfs. These soils are often used for truck crop and citrus production. Riviera sand is a deep, poorly drained, slow runoff, slowly to very slowly permeable soil that formed in stratified marine sandy and loamy sediments on the Lower Coastal Plain. These soil are generally found on broad, low flats and in depressions and have slopes generally less than 2 percent. The soil is of moderate extent. Riviera sand is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, Fl (W12844)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, Fl (W12844)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.78||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.0 cm C- 1||No appreciable snow accumulation occurs in this part of Florida|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||33.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.03 tons EI-1*||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992) and FARM Manual (EPA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.2||Haan and Barfield, 1979|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.0||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||4||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||1%||Mid-point of soil series range (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Field are fallow prior to planting|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - West Palm Beach, FL (W12844)|
|Maximum rainfall Interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.1||PIC; confirmed using Table 5.4 from PRZM Manual (Burns, 1992 and EPA, 1985)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||90 cm||http://www.wacd.org/|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||50||http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||Material is burned in place using propane burners and left behind http://www.ifas.ufl.edu/|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||91, 87, 88||Gleams Manual Table A.3, Fallow = SR poor, Cropping and Residue = Row Crop SR/poor (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.011||RUSLE Project; UC0BGBGC; Green Beans, conventional tillage; Tampa, FL (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.162 - 0.938||RUSLE Project; UC0BGBGC; Green Beans, conventional tillage; Tampa, FL, Variable with date (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||3 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, and Third Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)
Ed Russell (USDA-NRCS, Fresno)
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
Burns. 1992. Burns, L.A., (Coordinator), B.W. Allen, Jr., M.C. Barber, S.L. Bird, J.M. Cheplick, M.J. Fendley, D.R. Hartel, C.A. Kittner, F.L. Mayer, Jr., L.A. Suarez, and S.E. Wooten. Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment, Version 3.0. (PIRANHA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. 1992.
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).