The field used to represent sugarcane production in Louisiana is located in Terrebonne Parish in South-central Louisiana, although sugarcane production areas cover 21 parishes in the south central part of the state. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, Louisiana ranks 2nd in both sugarcane acreage and production. Most sugarcane is grown on well drained soils. Sugarcane is grown on fields with 15- to 18-inch flat bottom furrows or a furrow with a slight ridge of loose soil down the center. The elevated rows or beds are opened and the seed cane planted to a depth at least 3- to 4- inches above the final furrow water level, poorly drained soils will require higher planting. The seed cane is covered with no more than 2 inches of packed soil. Sugarcane is produced in a three to four year cycle with the first year planting referred to as the "plant cane" crop and successive years referred to as "stubble" or "ratoon" crops which are harvested from regrowth. Yields diminish with each successive crop. At the end of the third or fourth year, sugarcane is rotated to another crop or left fallow before replanting. Row spacing is approximately 60 inches. Irrigation is rarely used except in very dry years. The soil selected to simulate the field is a benchmark soil, Commerce silt loam. Commerce silt loam, is a fine-silty, mixed, superactive, nonacid, thermic, Aeric Fluvaquents. These soils are extensively used for sugarcane production. Commerce silt loam is a deep, somewhat poorly drained, medium to slow runoff, slowly permeable soil that formed in loamy alluvial sediments. These soil are generally found on level or undulating alluvial plains and have slopes generally less than 1 percent, but may range up to 5 percent. Agricultural areas are protected by levees; unprotected areas are subject to occasional to frequent flooding. The soil is extensive in Louisiana and throughout the lower Mississippi drainage basin. Commerce silt loam is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1964||Meteorological File - Jackson, MS (W03940)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - Jackson, MS (W03940)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.75||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.0 cm C- 1||Does not snow in Southern Louisiana such that accumulation is expected|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||25.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.43 tons EI-1*||PRZM Input Collator (Burns, 1992) and FARM Manual (EPA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.18||NRI for soil series Commerce; 1 standard deviation above the mean http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.0||Assume no practice supported|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||4||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||1%||Assume general value from soils description|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Set to represent fallow field|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||20||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - Jackson, MS (W03940)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.1||Set to maximum recommended value for grass; sugarcane is in the grass family. PIC (Burns, 1998)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||100 cm||Set to maximum of soil profile (EPA, 2001) http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||100||Set to default for row crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||Default for sugarcane while under 3-4 yr cycle. After cycle, rotate to new crop or fallow.|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|02/11||USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 417 Culture of Sugarcane|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|06/11||USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 417 Culture of Sugarcane|
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|21/11||USDA Agricultural Handbook No. 417 Culture of Sugarcane|
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||91, 87, 88||Gleams Manual Table A.3, Fallow = SR/poor, Cropping and Residue = Row Crops, SR/poor condition (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.014||RUSLE Project; TA6SCSCC; Sugarcane, conventional tillage, Lake Charles, LA: actually outside MLRA (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.251 - 0.736||RUSLE Project; Variable with date, TA6SCSCC; Sugarcane, conventional tillage, Lake Charles, LA: actually outside MLRA (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||3 ( 2 Base horizons, top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second and Third Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)||
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).