NORTH CAROLINA APPLES (Western)
The field used to represent apple production in North Carolina is located in Henderson County, in Western North Carolina. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, North Carolina is among the major producers of apples (7th to 8th overall) in the U.S., and is one of the southern most production areas. There are four primary apple production areas in western North Carolina, all long-term perennial regions, grown on a variety of soils, in different climate regions. Henderson County produces between 60 to 70 percent of the apple crop. Within row tree spacing depends on the root stock and cultivation method. Spacing ranges from as little as 5 feet to 25 feet. Row spacing may be as much as twice the within row spacing to allow for maintenance and harvesting equipment. The soil selected to simulate the field is a benchmark soil, Hayesville loam. Hayesville loam, is a fine, kaolinitic, mesic, Typic Kanhapludults. About one-half of these soils are under cultivation in corn, small grains, pasture, hayland, tobacco, vegetables, and Christmas trees. Hayesville loam is a very deep, well drained, moderately rapid permeable soil with slow to high runoff depending on slope. These soils formed in residuum weathered from igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks. They are found on gently sloping to very steep ridges and side slopes of the Southern Appalachian Mountains. They are located at elevations from 100 to 4000 feet above mean sea level on slopes of 2 to 60. The series is of large extent in the mountain areas of lower South. Hayesville loam is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - Bristol, TN (W13877)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - Bristol, TN (W13877)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.76||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.2 cm C- 1||PRZM Manual Table 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||17.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.2 tons EI-1*||GLEAMS Table of Representative Soils (USDA, 1990)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||3.04||GLEAMS Table of Representative Soils (USDA, 1990)|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.0||Set according to guidance (EPA, 2001)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed. (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||3||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||12%||Value set to maximum for crop (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||3||Set to reside prior to new crop planting; forest floor or meadow.|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Bristol, TN (W13877)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.25||Set to default for orchards (EPA, 2001)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||150 cm||Set to maximum soil depth. Roots may grow to 20 feet.|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||90||http://caf.wvu.edu/kearneysville/fruitloop.html ;
Ross Byers, Horticultural Specialist VPI - canopy somewhat open between rows; 90% reasonable upper end estimate.
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||Orchards floor maintained similar to a meadow|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|07/04||Personal communication w/ Ross Byers, VA Tech Fruit Horticulturalist (540) 869-2560 x19"Emergence based on leaf emergence, Maturation based on canopy maturity, Harvest based on average leaf fall. Dates based on central VA and modified by: 1 day added for every 100 miles north or 100 feet higher elevation or 1day subtracted for every 100 miles south or 100 feet lower elevation.|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||84, 79, 82||Gleams Manual Table A.3, meadow; condition good (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.023||RUSLE Project, NB0OBOBC; Orchard bare ground; conventional tillage; Asheville, NC (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.008 - 0.057||RUSLE Project; NB0OBOBC; Orchard bare ground; conventional tillage; Asheville, NC (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||150 cm||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||4 (3 Base, Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, Third, and Fourth Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3,4)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).