NORTH CAROLINA COTTON
The field used to represent cotton production in North Carolina is located in the Piedmont/Coastal Plain. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, North Carolina is ranked 5th among the major cotton producing states in the U.S. Most cotton is grown in the coastal plain region and approximately 3 percent in the Piedmont. Cotton is planted in the early Spring (mid-April) and harvested beginning in October. Continuous cotton is practice is much of the region and cotton is gradually replacing land once cultivated in tobacco. Row spacing is generally 38-inches with 3-4 plants per foot row. Row canopies tend to be very close to 100 percent, while the canopy between rows is much less. All cotton is defoliated in North Carolina prior to harvesting. Conventional tillage is the dominant practice, but, conservation tillage, no-till and strip-till practices are gaining in popularity in the region. The crop is rarely grown under irrigation, approximately 5 percent. The soil selected to simulate the field is a Boswell fine sandy loam. Boswell fine sandy loam is a fine, mixed, active, thermic Vertic Paleudalfs. Very little of the soil is in cotton and most remains in woodland or pasture. Boswell fine sandy loam is a deep, moderately well drained, moderate to rapid runoff, very slowly permeable soils formed in marine fluviatile deposits of acid clayey sediments. These soils have a high shrink-swell potential. They are located on nearly level to steep uplands of the Southern Coastal Plain. Slopes are generally between 1 to 17 percent. The soils are of large extent in the Southern Coastal Plain region. Boswell fine sandy loam is a Hydrologic Group D soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1950||Meteorological File - Montgomery, AL (W13895)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - Montgomery, AL (W13895)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.75||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.15 cm C- 1||PRZM Manual Table 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||17.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.34 tons EI-1*||FARM Manual, Table 3.1 (EPA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||1.3||Haan and Barfield, 1978.|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.00||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||3||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||6%||Selected according to QA/QC Guidance (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Set to default for fallow surface prior to planting|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||34||Set to weather data. Meteorological File - Montgomery, AL (W13895)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.2||PRZM Table 5.4 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||60 cm||PRZM Input Collator; (Burns, 1992); PRZM Table 5.9 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||98||PRZM Input Collator, PIC (Burns, 1992)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||3||Residues left on field until following year or cover crop is planted.|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|01/06||Usual Planting and Harvest Dates for US Field Crops (USDA, 1984)|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||92, 89, 90||Gleams Manual Table; Fallow SR/CT/poor, Cropping and Residue = Row Crop SR/CT/poor condition (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.014||RUSLE Project, PB8CTCTC, actually for Columbia, SC cotton, conv till (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.228 - 0.748||RUSLE Project; PB8CTCTC, actually for Columbia, SC cotton, conv till (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||3 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, and Third Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||PIC (Burns, 1992) Confirmed with: NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
Burns. 1992. Burns, L.A., (Coordinator), B.W. Allen, Jr., M.C. Barber, S.L. Bird, J.M. Cheplick, M.J. Fendley, D.R. Hartel, C.A. Kittner, F.L. Mayer, Jr., L.A. Suarez, and S.E. Wooten. Pesticide and Industrial Chemical Risk Analysis and Hazard Assessment, Version 3.0. (PIRANHA) Environmental Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA. 1992.
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1984. Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops, Statistical Reporting Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook #628, pp.78.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).