NORTH DAKOTA WHEAT
The field used to represent wheat production in North Dakota is located in Cass County in the Red River Valley. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, North Dakota is ranked 1st in the production of both durum and spring wheat in the U.S. The crop is generally planted in the Spring (late April to the end of May) and harvested beginning in August. Continuous wheat is practice is much of the region. Conventional tillage is used but requires greater seedbed preparation. No-till and reduced tillage systems are designed for use in high residue conditions. Row spacing ranges from 6 to 9 inches with seeds planted at a depth of 2 inches or less. The soil selected to simulate the field is a benchmark soil, Bearden silty clay loam. Bearden silty clay loam, is a fine-silty, mixed, superactive, frigid Aeric Calciaquolls. These soils are nearly all under cultivation to small grains, especially alfalfa, and row crops. Bearden silty clay loam is a very deep, somewhat poorly drained, slowly permeable soil with negligible to high runoff. These soils formed in calcareous silt loam and silty clay loam lacustrine sediments. They are generally found on glacial lake plains at elevations from 650 to 2000 feet above mean sea level on slopes of 0 to 3 percent. Bearden silty clay loam is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - Fargo, ND (W14914)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - Fargo, ND (W14914)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.75||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.5m C- 1||PRZM Manual Table 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||12.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.28 tons EI-1*||GLEAMS Manual, table of Representative Soils (USDA, 1990)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.17||GLEAMS Manual, table of Representative Soils (USDA, 1990)|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||1.0||Set according to guidance (EPA, 2001)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||3||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||1.5%||Value mid-point of series slope range (EPA, 2001)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Set to fallow prior to new crop planting|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Fargo, ND (W14914)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.1||PRZM, Table 5.4 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||22 cm||PRZM Manual, Table 5.9 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||100||QA/QC Guidance (EPA, 2001)|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||1||Fallow conditions after harvest in preparation for winter crop|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|15/05||Planting and Harvesting dates for spring wheat adjusted for "C" value planting and harvesting date (USDA, 1984)|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||91, 85, 87||Gleams Manual Table A.3, Fallow = SR/CT poor; Cropping = Row Crop SR/CT poor (second number; Fallow = row crop SR/CT poor (3rd number) (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.014||RUSLE Project, F86WSFA Fargo, ND spring wheat, fallow, conventional tillage (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.036 - 0.617||RUSLE Project; F86WSFA Fargo, ND spring wheat, fallow, conventional tillage (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||100 cm||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||4|
|First, Second, Third and Fourth Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3,4)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 1984. Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops, Statistical Reporting Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook #628, pp.78.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).