OREGON BERRIES (Blackberries)
The field used to represent blackberry production in Oregon is located in Marion County, in the Willamette Valley. According to the 1997 Census of Agriculture, Oregon is the leading state in the production of blackberries in the U.S. Marion County leads Oregon in acres planted in 1997. Three types of blackberries grow in Oregon: trailing, erect, and semi-erect. Blackberries are planted in the Spring from tissue cultures 4 to 6 feet apart in rows. The primocanes are trained on a 2-wire trellis until the canes produce fruit the following year. Once fruit appear, new primocanes replace the previous year's. It take three years to start full production of blackberries. Fields may be in every year or alternate year production. Berries are picked every 4 to 5 days, in the morning, beginning in early July. Blackberries require supplemental watering through irrigation in such a manner as to prevent excessive and prolonged wetness which encourages disease. The soil selected to simulate the field is a benchmark soil, Woodburn silt loam. Woodburn silt loam, is a fine-silty mixed, superactive, mesic Aquultic Agrixerolls. The series is used to produce berries, orchards, cannery crops, grain, hay, and pasture. Woodburn silt loam is a very deep, moderately well drained, slowly permeable soil with slow to medium runoff. These soils formed in stratified glacio lacustrine deposits of the Pleistocene age. They are found on nearly level to gently sloping broad valley terraces at elevations of 150 to 400 feet above mean sea level on slopes of 0 to 55 percent. The series is extensive in the Willamette Valley. Woodburn silt loam is a Hydrologic Group C soil.
|Starting Date||January 1, 1948||Meteorological File - Salem, OR (W24232)|
|Ending Date||December 31, 1983||Meteorological File - Salem, OR (W24232)|
|Pan Evaporation Factor (PFAC)||0.73||PRZM Manual Figure 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Snowmelt Factor (SFAC)||0.16 cm C- 1||PRZM Manual Table 5.1 (EPA, 1998)|
|Minimum Depth of Evaporation (ANETD)||17.0 cm||PRZM Manual Figure 5.2 (EPA, 1998)|
|Method to Calculate Erosion (ERFLAG)||4 (MUSS)||PRZM Manual (EPA, 1998)|
|USLE K Factor (USLEK)||0.32 tons EI-1*||GLEAMS Manual, Table of Representative Soils (USDA, 1985)|
|USLE LS Factor (USLELS)||0.945||GLEAMS Manual, Table of Representative Soils (USDA, 1985)|
|USLE P Factor (USLEP)||0.5||Set according to guidance (EPA, 2001)|
|Field Area (AFIELD)||172 ha||Area of Shipman Reservoir watershed (EPA, 1999)|
|NRCS Hyetograph (IREG)||2||PRZM Manual Figure 5.12 (EPA, 1998)|
|Slope (SLP)||5%||GLEAMS Manual, Table of Representative Soils (USDA, 1985)|
|Hydraulic Length (HL)||600 m||Shipman Reservoir (EPA, 1999)|
* EI = 100 ft-tons * in/ acre*hr
|Initial Crop (INICRP)||1||Set to one for all crops (EPA, 2001)|
|Initial Surface Condition (ISCOND)||1||Set to residue prior to new crop planting|
|Number of Different Crops (NDC)||1||Set to crops in simulation - generally one|
|Number of Cropping Periods (NCPDS)||36||Set to weather data. Salem, OR (W24232)|
|Maximum rainfall interception storage of crop (CINTCP)||0.1||PRZM Manual, Table 5.4 (EPA, 1998)|
|Maximum Active Root Depth (AMXDR)||90 cm||Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University; firstname.lastname@example.org|
|Maximum Canopy Coverage (COVMAX)||20|
|Soil Surface Condition After Harvest (ICNAH)||2||Continuous cultivation|
|Date of Crop Emergence
(EMD, EMM, IYREM)
|07/04||Bernadine Strik, Oregon State University; email@example.com|
|Date of Crop Maturity
(MAD, MAM, IYRMAT)
|Date of Crop Harvest
(HAD, HAM, IYRHAR)
|Maximum Dry Weight (WFMAX)||0.0||Set to "0" Not used in simulation|
|SCS Curve Number (CN)||84, 79, 82||Gleams Manual Table A.3,Meadow, condition good. (USDA, 1990)|
|Manning's N Value (MNGN)||0.023||RUSLE Project, A12GBGBC Grapes Alleyway, Clear Rows (USDA, 2000)|
|USLE C Factor (USLEC)||0.302 - 0.553||RUSLE Project; A12GBGBC Grapes Alleyway, Clear Rows (USDA, 2000)|
|Total Soil Depth (CORED)||203 cm||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001)|
|Number of Horizons (NHORIZ)||7 (Top horizon split in two)|
|First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Seventh Soil Horizons (HORIZN = 1,2,3,4,5,6,7)|
|Horizon Thickness (THKNS)||
||NRCS, National Soils Characterization Database (NRCS, 2001) http://soils.usda.gov/survey/nscd/|
|Bulk Density (BD)||
|Initial Water Content (THETO)||
|Compartment Thickness (DPN)||
|Field Capacity (THEFC)||
|Wilting Point (THEWP)||
|Organic Carbon Content (OC)|
EPA. 1985. Field Agricultural Runoff Monitoring (FARM) Manual, (EPA/600/3-85/043) Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1998. Carsel, R.F., J.C. Imhoff, P.R. Hummel, J.M. Cheplick, and A.S. Donigian, Jr. PRZM-3, A Model for Predicting Pesticide and Nitrogen Fate in the Crop Root and Unsaturated Soil Zones: Users Manual for Release 3.0. National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA.
EPA. 1999. Jones, R.D., J. Breithaupt, J. Carleton, L. Libelo, J. Lin, R. Matzner, and R. Parker. Guidance for Use of the Index Reservoir in Drinking Water Exposure Assessments. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington. D.C.
EPA. 2001. Abel, S.A. Procedure for Conducting Quality Assurance and Quality Control of Existing and New PRZM Field and Orchard Crop Standard Scenarios. Environmental Fate and Effects Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C.
Haan, C.T. and B.J. Barfield. 1978. Hydrology and Sedimentology of Surface Mined Lands. Office of Continuing Education and Extension, College of Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506. pp. 286.
USDA. 1990. Davis, F.M., R.A. Leonard, W.G. Knisel. GLEAMS User Manual, Version 1.8.55. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory, Tifton GA. SEWRL-030190FMD.
USDA. 2000. Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) EPA Pesticide Project. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and Agricultural Research Service (ARS).