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Jefferson County, Alabama

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table | About the Watercress Darter
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Jefferson County, Alabama Map (Shading Key) Watercress darter

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Watercress Darter

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
Alfalfa, Peanuts
All Other Uses
NALED 5b,10b
PARATHION (ethyl) 5b
Code Limitations
5b Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from all areas described under the Shading Key.
10b Do not apply directly to water within all areas described under the Shading Key.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

Watercress darter [Etheostoma nuchale]

The watercress darter is a small, robust fish, just over 2 inches in length. Breeding males have blue backs, orange-red bellies, and blue and orange fins. The watercress dartar inhabits deep, slow-moving backwaters of spring outflows that support dense aquatic vegetation. It feeds on the large community of aquatic insects that also inhabit this environment.

The watercress darter was first discovered in 1964 at Glenn Springs near Bessemer, Alabama. Because of its recent discovery, the historic range of the watercress darter is unknown. It is currently found in three springs in Jefferson County, Alabama: Glenn Springs, Thomas' Spring, and Roebuck Springs. No population estimates have been made, but researchers believe that populations at Glen Springs and Thomas' Spring are decreasing, while the population at Roebuck Springs is increasing.

The greatest threats to this species are habitat alterations and pollution from the Birmingham-Bessemer metropolitan area. Darters in Roebuck Spring suffer from "gas bubble disease," caused by high levels of sewage-derived nitrogen in the water, and may not survive much longer in this spring. Management and conservation efforts to restore the watercress darter in Thomas' Spring and Glenn Spring are predicted to be successful.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 845-46.

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