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Lauderdale County, Alabama

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Alabama Cavefish | Pesticide Table for Freshwater Mollusks
Pesticide Table for the Slackwater Darter | About the Alabama Cavefish
About Freshwater Mollusks | About the Slackwater Darter
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Lauderdale County, Alabama

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Freshwater Mollusks

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2c
BENOMYL 1c
CAPTAN 1c
CARBARYL 2c
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa, Peanuts
43
Apples
41
All Other Uses
2c
DIAZINON 2c
DICOFOL 2c
DIMETHOATE 2c
ENDOSULFAN 2c
ETHION 2c
FENAMIPHOS 2c
FLURIDONE 20
FONOFOS 2c
MALATHION 2c
METHIDATHION 2c
METHYL PARATHION 1c
MEVINPHOS 2c
NALED 1c
NITRAPYRIN 1c
PARATHION (ethyl) 2c
PENDIMETHALIN 2c
PHOSMET 1c
PROPICONAZOLE 1
PYRETHRINS 2c
TERBUFOS 2c
TRICHLORFON 2c
Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the ede of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1c For ground applications do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of the water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
2c For ground applications do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of the water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Alabama Cavefish

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
ACEPHATE 7
ALDICARB 60
ATRAZINE 7
AZINPHOS-METHYL 7
BENOMYL 7
BENSULIDE 7
CAPTAN 7
CARBARYL 60
CARBOFURAN 60
CHLOROTHALONIL 60
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa, Peanuts
43
Apples
41
All Other Uses
7
COPPER SULFATE, BASIC 7
DEF 7
DIAZINON 60
DICOFOL 7
DICROTOPHOS 7
DIFLUBENZURON 7
DIMETHOATE 7
DISULFOTON (granular) 60
DISULFOTON (non-granular) 60
DIURON 7
ENDOSULFAN 60
ETHION 7
ETHOPROP 60
FENAMIPHOS 60
FENITROTHION 7
FONOFOS 60
ISOFENPHOS 7
MALATHION 60
MANCOZEB 7
METHIDATHION 7
METHOMYL(granular) 7
METHOMYL(non-granular) 7
METHOPRENE 7
METHYL PARATHION 60
MEVINPHOS 7
NALED 7
NITRAPYRIN 7
OXAMYL 7
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 7
OXYFLUORFEN 7
PARATHION (ethyl) 60
PENDIMETHALIN 7
PHORATE 7
PHOSMET 7
PHOSPHAMIDON 7
PROFENOFOS 7
PROPACHLOR 60
PROPARGITE 7
PROPAZINE 7
PYRETHRINS 7
SULPROFOS 7
TERBUFOS 7
THIODICARB 7
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 7
TRICHLORFON 7
TRIFLURALIN 60
Code Limitations
7 For ground applications do not apply this pesticide withhin 20 yards from the edge of all caverns, sinkholes, and surface waters within the shaded area. For aerial applicationsdo not apply within 100 yards of these sites.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
60 Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area.

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Slackwater Darter

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code *TAR
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2c --
BENOMYL 2c --
BENSULIDE 297 4.3
CAPTAN 2c --
CARBARYL 2c --
CARBOFURAN 2c --
CHLORPYRIFOS
Alfalfa, Peanuts
43 --
Apples
41 --
All Other Uses
2c,10 --
DEF 2c --
DIAZINON 2c,10 --
DICROTOPHOS 297 0.2
DISULFOTON (granular) 2c --
DISULFOTON (non-granular) 297 0.1
ENDOSULFAN 2c --
ETHION 297 0.4
FENAMIPHOS 2c --
FLURIDONE 20 --
FONOFOS 2c --
MALATHION 2c,10 --
METHIDATHION 2c --
METHOMYL (granular) 2c --
METHOMYL (non-granular) 297 0.4
METHYL PARATHION 10,297 0.6
MEVINPHOS 2c --
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 297 0.5
PARATHION (ethyl) 2c,10 --
PENDIMETHALIN 297 0.6
PHORATE 2c --
PHOSMET 2c --
PROFENOFOS 2c --
PROPACHLOR 2c --
PROPARGITE 2c --
PYRETHRINS 2c,10 --
TERBUFOS 2c --
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 2c --
TRICHLORFON 297 3.8
Code Limitations
2c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area. In addion, do not apply directly to water within 1 mile upstream from the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications , nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
297 For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.

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Freshwater mussel [Unionidae]

Freshwater mollusks found in this area are one or more of the following: the orange-footed (pimple back) pearly mussel, the pink mucket pearly mussel, and the rough pigtoe mussel, and the white wartyback pearly mussel. All of these mussels are in the family Unionidae, a family restricted to North America. A far larger percentage of this family are imperiled than any other taxonomic (species) group.

Freshwater mussels can live up to 50 years. In the parasitic larval stage

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wn. Mature mussels bury themselves in the riffles and shoals and feed by siphoning phytoplankton and other plant matter from the water. Reverse siphoning is used to expell undigestible particles from the shell. Silt in the water can kill mussels by clogging their feeding siphons.

Major factors affecting mussel populations are alterations in temperature, waterflow, and siltation caused by stream damming and channeling. Agricultural runoffs and industrial practices have also affected the mussel habitat by degrading water quality and causing siltation. Because mussels are filter feeders, the effects of pollution are intensified due to the large quantities of water drawn through their siphons in the feeding process. Another significant threat to this species is the widespread and rapid population growth of the introduced zebra mussel. The zebra mussel not only competes with native species, but also attatches to them, adding so much weight that the native species cannot open to feed. In the past, commerial harvests contributed to the decline of freshwater mussels but this industry has since been reduced.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 955-956.

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Alabama cavefish [Speoplatyrhinus poulsoni]

The Alabama cavefish is about 3 inches long and has a large head that makes up over a third of its length. It has no eyes and is without discernible pigmentation, appearing transparent pinkish-white in color. It feeds on small, aquatic invertibrates and smaller cavefish, and has a lifespan of five to ten years. Although little is known about the cavefish, it is believed to reproduce by incubating eggs within a chamber underneath its gills. The Alabama cavefish is the rarest American cavefish and is one of the rarest freshwater fishes in North America.

The cavefish is only known to inhabit the Key Cave in Alabama. This cave has cool, year round temperatures and receives no direct sunlight. It is located in a large, stable aquifer underlying rock strata that are honeycombed with channels to allow passage of groundwater. Flooding is generally responsible for washing organic matter into the the pools and streams within the cave and providing cave fauna with nutrients. Cave fauna provide food for higher life forms, such as the grey bat. The grey bat supplies guano which feeds small aquatic life, such as the Alabama cavefish and cave adapted creyfish.

Only nine specimens of the Alabama Cavefish have ever been collected in the Key Cave. Because the underground water system in the area is so widespread, it was hoped that the cavefish population had spread to other sites. Unfortunately, extensive studies failed to locate any other populations. The number of individuals in the Key Cave is estimated to be less than 100.

Groundwater quality directly affects the fragile ecology of the cave. Fertilizers, pesticides, sewage runoff, and the diminishing population level of the gray bat within the cave, have harmed the habitat and reproductive capacity of this and other species within the cave.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 950-1.

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Slackwater darter [Etheostoma boschungi]

The slackwater darter ranges from 1.6 to 3 inches in length. It is characterized by a blue-black bar under the eyes, and by three prominent dark dorsal saddles. This fish feeds on insects and small crustaceans and lives no more than three years. It is found in small to moderate, slow-flowing upland streams no more than 40 feet wide and less than 7 feet deep, or in wider streams with overhanging banks without riffles or rapids. This species has distinct breeding habits that rely on spring rains in seepage areas such as open fields, pastures or woods where they spawn in water no more than 3 in. deep.

Historically, populations of the slackwater darter were probabally more widely distributed throughout smaller streams of the Tennessee River basin. Current populations are found in limited numbers in five tributaries in the south bend of the Tennessee River: Buffalo River and Shoal Creek (Lawrence County), Tennessee; and Flint River (Madison County), Swan Creek (Limestone County), and Cypress Creek (Lauderdale County), Alabama.

The slackwater darter's habitat has been significantly reduced due to falling water tables throughout the region. Heavy groundwater use for agricultural and human consumption has dried up many seepage areas and closed off numerous spawning areas. Current threats to the remaining populations are herbicides, pesticides, industrial wastes, and sewage which enters the groundwater system and degrades water quality.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol. II, pp. 839-40.

 

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