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Coconino County, Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

How to Use this Information
Pesticide Table for the Brady Pincushion and the Siler Pincushion Cactus
Pesticide Table for the Little Colorado Spinedace | Pesticide Table for the Navajo Sedge
About the Brady Pincushion | About the the Siler Pincushion Cactus
About the Little Colorado Spinedace | About the Navajo Sedge
Arizona Map | ESPP Home


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Coconino County, Arizona Map

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Brady Pincushion Cactus and the Siler Pincushion Cactus

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
ATRAZINE 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
METRIBUZIN 32a
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 17b
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular) 17b
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
17b Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described in the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Little Colorado Spinedace

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients


Active Ingredient Code TAR*
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3m, 5d  
BENOMYL 1m  
CAPTAN 1m  
CARBARYL 3m  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 199 0.7
CARBOFURAN (non-granular) 1m  
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 1  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 199 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3m, 10  
DIAZINON
   
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
DIFLUBENZURON 1m  
DIMETHOATE (granular) 1  
DIMETHOATE (non-granular) 5d, 199 2.3
DISULFOTON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
ESFENVALERATE 3m, 5d  
FLURIDONE 20  
MALATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
MANCOZEB 199 0.75
METHOMYL 3m, 5d  
METHYL PARATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
NALED 5D, 399 2.0
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 199 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 1  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)199 0.75  
PERMETHRIN 3m, 5d  
PHOSMET 1m  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 199 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 199 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1m, 5d, 10  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1m  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 399 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2 Do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the
3m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5d Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area shown on the map, nor within 1 mile up all streams from the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
199 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
399 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Navajo Sedge

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
ATRAZINE 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described unbder the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Brady pincushion cactus [Pediocactus bradyi]

The Brady pincushion cactus is accurately referred to as a "dwarf" plant, given that it only grows up to 6 centimeters (2.4 in) tall and 5 centimeters (2 in) in diameter. Its tiny, white and tan spines are only 6 millimeters (0.24 in) long. This diminutive plant is most noticeable when its large, straw-yellow flowers bloom in the spring. The Brady pincushion cactus is closely related to the Peebles Navajo cactus (P. peeblesianus) and the Siler pincushion cactus (P. sileri), and all three are federally listed as endangered species.

This cactus grows on soil overlayed with stony rubble on the high Colorado Plateau in northern Arizona and southern Utah. Historically, the range of this plant spanned along the Grand Canyon to the Arizona-Utah Border. However, the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963 eliminated a significant portion of the habitat. Currently, the cactus is located on both sides of the Colorado River near Marble Canyon, and to the south and west along the river including the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area. The plants fall on public and private lands, and since 1958, the decline in their numbers has been very sharp. In 1984, the estimated population was about 10,000 plants living in a highly localized area.

The Brady pincushion cactus is in worldwide demand from collectors, who have decimated the populations. Even casual collectors seems to locate and remove flowering cacti before they can set seed. In addition, much of the habitat of the cactus lies on rich, ore-bearing ground, making uranium exploration and other mining activities potential threats if the market demands are sufficient. Off-road vehicle traffic also adversely affects the environment of the cacti, tearing up large areas of natural vegetation where the Brady pincushion cactus occurs.

Plans for the recovery of the cactus are focusing on the development of techniques to reproduce the plant in a greenhouse. The cacti could then be produced for commercial sale to appease collectors, and for reintroduction into the wild. Although the Plant Resources Institute in Salt Lake City, Utah, has developed a way to propagate several species of cacti, funding has been unavailable to extend this program to the Brady pincushion cactus.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 299-300.

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Siler pincushion cactus [Pediocactus sileri]

The Siler pincushion cactus is a tiny, inconspicuous plant measuring up to 10 centimeters (4 in) in diameter. Given its size, this endangered plant could easily be overlooked or stepped upon, if it were not for its flowers. During the spring, bright yellowish flowers about 2.5 centimeters (1 in) in diameter will bloom and produce greenish yellow fruit. Its straight or slightly curved spines are about 2.5 centimeters (1in) long, and are dark brown which lighten to a white color with age.

The Siler pincushion cactus, which also has been known as Echinocactus sileri or Utahia sileri, is found on the gypsum- and calcium-rich soils of barren rolling hills. These soils are high in soluble salts that, while ill-disposed to many plants, apparently suit the needs of this cactus which does not compete well in other soils. Given its predisposition to this highly specific soil type, it is probable that the Siler pincushion never extended beyond its current range of northwestern Arizona and southwestern Utah. Currently, this cactus sparsely populates a narrow band stretching from southeast of Fredonia (Coconino County) west into north-central Mohave County, Arizona, a distance of 70 miles. This band is only 30 miles wide, and as of the mid 1980's, contains about 7,000 individual plants of the species.

The influence of human beings has adversely affected the Siler pincushion cactus. Gypsum mining used to be a major menace to this cactus, but potential uranium mining now seems to be a greater danger. More than 200 uranium plans have been filed in the "Arizona Strip," 81 within the cactus' habitat. A rise in uranium prices could induce mining companies to develop these claims. In addition, portions of the habitat have been overgrazed by livestock, which also contributed to the erosion of the slopes. The sparse, rolling hills are attractive sites for off-road vehicles, which can further erode the delicate environment of the cactus. Collectors also pose a considerable threat to this plant. Despite the plant being considered a species of concern in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and that all cacti are protected under Arizona law, Siler pincushion cacti are not only sought by collectors, but were even offered for sale in five plant catalogs between 1982 and 1984. Monitoring of the plant has been underway since 1986, and attempts are being made to propagate the species in greenhouses to supply the commercial trade.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 307-308.

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Little Colorado spinedace [Lepidomeda vittata]

The Little Colorado spinedace is a "counter-shaded" minnow, with a back of olive or bluish to lead gray, and a silvery lower body. The counter shading consists of darker colors on its back to allow the spinedace to blend in with the stream bottom below, in order to protect it from predators above, like birds. The lighter color of its belly is similar to the water surface and sky background when looked at from below, protecting the species from predatory fish.

The Little Colorado spinedace is small, even for a minnow, with a length of around 10 centimeters (4 in). The species has a small head and relatively large eyes. This fish spawns primarily in early summer, continuing at a reduced rate until early fall. Like other minnows, the fish feeds on small insects and organic debris.

The spinedace was first described living in Arizona in 1874, when it was taken from the upper portions of the Little Colorado River. It lives in pools of narrow to moderately sized streams with mild temperatures. During droughts, the fish will retreat to springs and intermittent stream bed pools. During flooding, it will spread throughout the stream. Today, this fish is only found in the upper portions of the Little Colorado River and its cool tributaries in Coconino, Navajo, and Apache counties, Arizona. The species cannot survive in reservoirs or other impoundments.

The decline of the Little Colorado Spinedace is the result of detrimental effects from human settlement along the river. Dam building, water pumping, stream channeling, and road building have radically altered the water system within the spinedace's habitat. As with other species in Arizona, the introduction of non-native fish into the river further jeopardizes the spinedace, threatening the species with new predators and competitors in the ecosystem. Spinedace populations were further diminished by the use of fish toxicants associated with "enhancing" the habitat for gamefish introductions.

Currently, the best protection for the spinedace is federal ownership of much its habitat, along with the inaccessibility of associated private lands. Portions of the Little Colorado River, East Clear Creek, Silver Creek and Nutrioso Creek are protected as part of the National Forest System. However, as the human population increases, there will be mounting pressures for recreational access, water diversion, roads, and other development.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 895-896.

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Navajo sedge [Carex specuicola]

Navajo sedge is a grass-like, perennial plant which grows in clumps of long, narrow, wispy pale green leaves. The plant can reach up to 40 centimeters (16 in) in height, and its leaves are usually about 16 centimeters (6.3 in) long. During the spring and summer months, inconspicuous flowers, consisting of small, green-brown, scale-like parts, bloom.

This threatened sedge grows in dense colonies in damp, sandy to silty soils around shady, spring-fed seepages that occur at about 1,750 meters (5,800 ft) elevation. Because of this, the Navajo sedge was probably never common outside of its current distribution in Coconino County, Arizona. Presently, this plant is found at three sites near the Inscription House Ruin on the Navajo Indian Reservation. Each colony covers an area of about 20 square meters (2,152 sq. ft) around the springs, and as of 1980, all of the populations appeared to be healthy.

Although the springs which support the three Navajo sedge populations are also used to water livestock, the current water arrangement channels water into troughs, away from the sedges and keeps damage to the plants, from trampling, at a minimum. An increase in the number of livestock would certainly increase the damage to the plants, and the populations would most likely be fenced for protection, or the grazing practices modified. The recovery plan for the Navajo sedge recommends restricting cattle from the sedges' habitats to avoid the trampling of plants.

Despite this risk from the livestock, the Fish and Wildlife Service appears content to maintain the current equilibrium between plant and animal. To further ensure the safety of the plants, however, Critical Habitat has been desiginated for all three populations, comprising about 600 square meters (0.015 acres).

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 75-76.
US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Navajo Sedge Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 39 pp.

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