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Gila County, Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Arizona Agave and the Arizona Hedgehog Cactus
Pesticide Table for the Gila Topminnow | Pesticide Table for the Loach Minnow
About the Arizona Agave | About the the Arizona Hedgehog Cactus
About the Gila Topminnow | About the Loach Minnow
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Gila County, Arizona Map

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Arizona Agave and the Arizona Hedgehog

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
2, 4-D (all forms) 29 29
ATRAZINE 29 29
CLOPYRALID 29 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29 29
HEXAZINONE 29 29
MCPA (all forms) 29 29
METRIBUZIN 32a  
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 17b  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular) 17b  
PARAQUAT 29  
PICLORAM (all forms) 29  
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a  
TEBUTHIURON 29  
Code Limitations
17b Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described in the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Gila Topminnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 199 0.7
CARBOFURAN (non-granular) 1m  
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Apples
41  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3x  
DIAZINON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
MALATHION 3x, 5a  
METHOMYL 5a, 196 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Loach Minnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Soil-incorporated Liquids
Active Ingredient Code *TAR
ALDICARB 196 0.5
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3x, 5a  
BENOMYL 3x  
BENSULIDE    
Granular formulations and
  2a
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
396 4
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CARBOFURAN 296  
CHLORTHALONIL (granular) 2a  
CHLORTHALONIL (non-granular) 396 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3x, 10a  
COPPER SULFATE 1x  
DIAZINON
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DICOFOL 396 1
DICROTOPHOS 196 1.2
DIFLUBENZURON 1x  
DIMETHOATE 3x, 5a  
DISULFOTON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DIURON 196 4
ENDOSULFAN 3x, 5a  
ESFENVALERATE 1x, 5a  
ETHION 396 0.5
ETHOPROP 1x  
FENAMIPHOS 1x  
FLURIDONE 20a  
FONOFOS 1x  
ISOFENPHOS (granular) 1a  
ISOFENPHOS (non-granular) 196 2.8
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
METHIDATHION 1x  
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
OXAMYL (granular) 1a  
OXAMYL (non-granular) 196 1.5
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 196 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 2a  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)396 0.75  
PARATHION (ethyl) (granular) 2a  
PARATHION (ethyl) (non-granular) 3x  
PENDIMETHALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
PERMETHRIN 196 0.04
PHORATE 3x  
PHOSMET 3x  
PHOSPHAMIDON 196 4
PROFENOFOS 3x  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PROPARGITE 196 1.5
PYRETHRINS 3x, 5a, 10a  
SULPROFOS 196 1.5
TERBUFOS 5a, 396 1
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1x  
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 3x  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5
TRIFLURALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
396 0.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described unbder the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Arizona agave [Agave arizonica]

The Arizona agave is a squat, rounded plant with long, flattened leaves that grow all around its base. The elongated, cupped leaves store water during the hot days in the extreme environment of its mountain habitat. This agave is included in a genus of about 300 other species of agave, many of which are used throughout the world for fibers, food, soap, and fermented liquor.

The leaves of this plant grow to about 30 centimeters (12 in) high and 41 centimeters (16 in) broad. However, during its flowering period, the agave grows a tall, slender stalk up to 3.6 meters (12 feet) tall, bearing small, pale-yellow, jar-shaped flowers. The Arizona agave is distinctive for being a very infrequent reproducer, as well as being slow to mature. In fact, most species of this genus take several years to flower. A few species of agave, known as "century plants," die after flowering, apparently because of the high energy requirements of producing the tall flower stalk. Although this would help explain the endangered status of the Arizona agave, it has not yet been determined that this is the case with this specific plant.

The Arizona agave is endemic to a very small area in the creek bottoms and granite hills near the summit of the New River Mountains in central Arizona, at an elevation of 915 to 1,830 meters (3,000 to 6,000 ft). The soils of this habitat are typically gravelly loam, and surrounding vegetation is oak chaparral. Today, this agave only occurs as a series of localized, isolated populations, totaling 168 square kilometers (65 square mi). Recently, the agave has declined from 19 populations to 13 or less, all located in the New River Mountains.

Ironically, the attractiveness of the Arizona agave has become a liability, for it used to be widely sought for decorative purposes in gardens. Even today, the plant is often collected in ignorance of its endangered status and in violation of the Arizona Native Plant Law. Unfortunately, the agave reproduces so slowly that it is very difficult to repopulate areas that have been picked over by collectors. It is believed that this slow reproduction rate is due to cattle, deer, and rabbits that feed on the flower stalks before the seed capsules are able to open. Building fences to protect the plants from the animals has been suggested, but many feel that this would attract collectors to the rare, surviving plants.

Although all of the existing populations of the Arizona agave occur on the protected land of the Tonto National Forest, and federal law prohibits its removal or destruction, it is difficult to protect the plant due to a shortage of personnel to monitor the remote areas where the species lives.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 13-14.

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Arizona hedgehog cactus [Echinocereus triglochidialus var arizonicus]

The Arizona hedgehog cactus, like other hedgehog cacti, is a dimunitive, branched cactus with showy flowers. Despite its small size of up to 40 cm (16 in) in height, it is one of the largest of the red-flowering hegehog cacti. The bright red flowers with greenish midribs burst out of the dense clumps of egg-shaped branches, blooming in late April to mid-May. The spines, up to 3.6 cm (1.5 in), are a dark grey color tinged with pink.

This species, which also has been known as Echinocereus arizonicus, is restricted to granite boulder outcrops in mountain woodlands at 1,160 to 1,585 meters (3,800 to 5,200 ft) elevation. Historically, the Arizona hedgehog cactus thrived in the wooded highlands of central Arizona, between Miami and Superior, north of the Gila River. The current range of the cactus is much the same as before, but populations are considerably smaller and tend to be concentrated in rugged, inaccessible areas. At present, the number of of individuals of the species is unkown, but is considered "low".

The largest threat to the existence of the Arizona hedgehog cactus is a result of its beauty. Collectors who crave its bright red flowers have hunted the plant nearly to extinction. Even though this cactus is listed as a species of concern by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and is included in the Arizona law which protects all cacti, collectors regularly remove the Arizona hedgehog cactus from the wild. Because of its low numbers and extremely restricted range, collecting the cactus can deplete its population in a short time. Active copper mining and other developments of mineral exploration further threaten the Arizona hedgehog cactus.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 152-153.

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Gila and Yaqui topminnow [Poeciliopsis occidentalis]

The Gila topminnow consists of two subspecies, the Gila (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) and the Yaqui (P. occidentalis sonoriensis), both of which are federally listed as endangered. This topminow is included in the same family as the domesticated aquarium guppy, and is similar to the guppy in many aspects. This tiny fish averages 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2 to 1.6 in) in length. It is tan to olive on the upper portions of its body and white below. Similar to other fish, the body colors of breeding males will become more vibrant in order to entice the females. Breeding male topminnows darken to jet black and develop bright yellow fins and golden tints along their midsections.

Although the lifespan of the Gila topminnow is only about one year, the species is a prolific breeder. Gestation varies from 24 to 28 days for the Gila topminnow and 12 to 14 days for the Yaqui subspecies. Unlike most other fish, the topminnow gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. The onset of breeding is affected by water temperature, daylight, and food availability.

Topminnows are able to exist in a broad range of habitats. Though they prefer shallow, warm, and fairly quiet waters, these fish are also found in moderate currents and depths up to 1 meter (3.3 ft). They make their homes in permanent and intermittent streams, marshes, and river banks, where they seek dense mats of algae and debris with sandy substrates for their preferred living environment.

Historically, this topminnow was abundant throughout the Gila River system and Rio Yaqui drainage in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. The current severe reductions of population and suitable habitat are reasons for grave concern for the survival of the this species. The Gila Topminnow still occurs in natural populations at only eight isolated locations in the Santa Cruz River System. It is believed that extensive groundwater pumping and diversion of water for the irrigation of agriculture in Mexico have annihilated the species from that country. The Yaqui topminnow is found only at eight US locations within the Yaqui River headwaters, but is more abundant in Mexico.

Water projects such as dam building and crop irrigation transformed all free-flowing southwestern rivers into intermittent, deeply cut streams or broad, sandy washes, reducing the topminnow populations to a fraction of their pre-1860's range. As with other species of fish found in Arizona, the topminnow is also threatened by aggressive and predatory, non-native fish which have been introduced for recreational purposes. Other introduced species like the related mosquitofish harass adult topminnows and feed on the young, and are a major obstacle to the continuing survival of these fish. Only when a habitat is sufficiently large can these two species coexist.

Some of the topminnow populations are found on National Wildlife Refuges and are well protected. The species is also successfully reared in captivity and has been reintroduced into the wild. However, even with the gifted fertility of this fish, it is clear that the Gila and Yaqui topminnows need large, stable habitats to ensure their survival.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 928-929.

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Loach minnow [Tiaroga cobitis]

The Loach minnow is notable for its highly angled mouth and its eyes that point markedly upward. Its olive-colored body is marked with dirty white spots on its back and tail. The vivid red-orange streaks which cover the bodies of breeding males, when added to the other physical descriptions, produces a striking appearence. To observe the minnow, one will have to look closely, for this slender-bodied fish is typically less than 8 centimeters (3.1 in) in length. The Loach Minnow is the only species in its genus. The fish's behavior has been poorly studied. It is assumed that it is a bottom feeder, eating insects and plant matter from the stream floor.

The Loach minnow makes its home in shallow streams with perennial flow, concentrating in turbulent riffles over a rocky bottom. Recurrent flooding keeps the stream floor free of silt and sediment, and because it is better adapted to strong currents, the minnow is able to maintain its population against encroaching non-native fishes.

This species was once common throughout the Verde, Salt, San Francisco, and Gila river systems, totaling 2,800 kilometers (1,750 mi) of stream habitat. This original habitat has been reduced by 80 percent, with the Loach minnow currently found in Aravaipa Creek, Blue River, and the White River in Arizona, and in the upper Gila River and its tributaries in New Mexico. Historically, the fish also existed in Mexico, but habitat there has been largely destroyed by diversion of water for irrigation and the species is thought to be extinct.

As with other native fishes of the Gila River system, the Loach minnow has been seriously harmed by human alteration of the ecosystem. Water diversion and groundwater pumping have detrimentally affected the delicate free-flowing streams in which the minnow makes its home. Stream impoundments, which cause sendimentation to cover the required rocky bottom for the fish, further jeopardizes this threatened species. Despite its advantages in the fast moving water, the minnow is still at risk from the predatory, competitive, non-native fish introduced for recreational purposes.

More than half of the existing Loach minnow population exists on public land. However, competition for water resources is always a potential threat to aquatic species in this arid region. Critical habitat has been designated along 257 km (159 (mi) of stream currently occupied by the minnow, thus ensuring that all water projects are developed in a way that accomodates the species and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Loach Minnow (Tiaroga cobitis). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10898-10906. March 8, 1994.

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