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Greenlee County, Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Apache Trout
Pesticide Table for the Loach Minnow and Spikedace | About the Apache Trout
About the Loach Minnow | About the Spikedace
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Greenlee County, Arizona Map

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Apache Trout

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3, 5d  
BENOMYL 1  
CAPTAN 1  
CARBARYL 3  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 199 0.7
CARBOFURAN (non-granular) 1  
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 1  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 199 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa
43  
Apples
41  
All Other Uses Except
   
as a Termitcide
3, 20  
DIAZINON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3  
DICOFOL 399 1
DICROTOPHOS 199 1.2
DIFLUBENZURON 1  
DIMETHOATE (granular) 1  
DIMETHOATE (non-granular) 5d, 199 2.3
DISULFOTON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3  
ESFENVALERATE 1, 5d  
FENITROTHION 3  
MALATHION 3, 5d, 20  
MANCOZEB 199 0.75
METHOMYL 1, 5d  
METHYL PARATHION 3, 5d, 20  
NALED 5D, 199 2.0
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 199 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 1  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular) 199 0.75
PERMETHRIN 1, 5d  
PHOSMET 1
PROPACHLOR (granular) 299 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 399 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1, 5d, 20  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 399 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2 Do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the
3 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, now within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5d Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map.
20 Do not apply directly to water within in the shaded area shown on the map.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
199 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
299 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
399 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Loach Minnow and the Spikedace

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
ALDICARB 199 0.5
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3m, 5d  
BENOMYL 3m  
BENSULIDE    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
399 4
CAPTAN 1m  
CARBARYL 3m  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 299 0.7
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 2  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 399 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa
43  
Apples
41  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3m, 10  
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 1m  
DIAZINON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
DIFLUBENZURON 1m  
DIMETHOATE (granular) 3  
DIMETHOATE (non-granular) 3m, 5d  
DISULFOTON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
DIURON 199 4
ENDOSULFAN 3m, 5d  
ESFENVALERATE 1m, 5d  
ETHION 399 3.5
ETHOPROP 1m  
FENAMIPHOS 1m  
FLURIDONE 20  
FONOFOS 1m  
ISOFENPHOS (granular) 1  
ISOFENPHOS (non-granular) 199 2.8
MALATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
MANCOZEB 199 0.75
METHIDATHION 1m  
METHOMYL 5d, 399 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
NALED 5d, 399 2.0
OXAMYL (granular) 1  
OXAMYL (non-granular) 199 1.5
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 199 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 2  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)399 0.75  
PARATHION (ethyl) (granular) 2  
PARATHION (ethyl) (non-granular) 3m  
PENDIMETHALIN    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
PERMETHRIN 199 0.04
PHORATE 3m  
PHOSMET 3m  
PHOSPHAMIDON 199 4
PROFENOFOS 3m  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 299 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 399 0.4
PROPARGITE 199 1.5
PYRETHRINS 3m, 5d, 10  
SULPROFOS 199 1.5
TERBUFOS 3m  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1m  
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 399 1
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 399 3.5
TRIFLURALIN    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
399 0.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2 Do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
3m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5d Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area shown on the map, nor within 1 mile up all streams from the shaded area.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area shown on the map.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
199 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
299 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
399 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Apache trout [Oncorhynchus (=Salmo) apache]

The Apache trout is distinguished by its deep, compressed body with a large dorsal fin. Also known as the Arizona trout, the fish grows to a mature length of 18-23 centimeters (7-9 in). This yellowish or yellow-olive trout is distinctive for the uniformly spaced dark, brown spots which cover its back and sides. The species feeds on terrestrial and aquatic insects by taking them from the surface.

The Apache trout commonly inhabits fast-flowing mountain streams. The severe winters at this high altitude habitat significantly deplete trout numbers, producing a large fluctuation in fish populations. In addition, this species does not spawn until individuals are three years old. Thus, the slow and variable reproduction is a natural barrier to the recovery of this endangered species.

Currently, the largest numbers of the Apache trout are found in the headwaters of the White and Black River systems on the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Streams in the Gila and Apache-Sitgreaves national forests have been rehabilitated to support reintroduced populations, and several thousand of these fish have been spotted in the East Fork of the White River. Prior to these reintroductions, the range of the Apache trout was reduced to approximately 48 kilometers (30 mi) of stream, an area less than 5 percent of its historic range in Arizona and New Mexico.

Ironically, the largest threat to the existence of the Apache trout is not from direct exploitation, but rather indirectly as a result of introducing non-native fish species into the trout's natural habitat. Brook, rainbow, and brown trouts were introduced into many streams as game fish and have competed with the Apache trout for survival. In addition, the Apache trout has the ability to interbreed with brown trout, producing hybrids and jeopardizing the status of the this species as a genetically identifiable species. During the past twenty years, the Fish and Wildlife Service has struggled, with little success, to eradicate the non-native fish populations from the waters of the Apache trout. However, the development of methods for raising the Apache trout in captivity has greatly improved the chances of a prosperous future for the species. In an effort to return the trout to their natural habitat, hatcheries hope to raise 50,000 fish a year to restock the streams. This action virtually ensures the long-term survival of the Apache trout, as long as suitable habitat exists.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 938-939.

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Loach minnow [Tiaroga cobitis]

The Loach minnow is notable for its highly angled mouth and its eyes that point markedly upward. Its olive-colored body is marked with dirty white spots on its back and tail. The vivid red-orange streaks which cover the bodies of breeding males, when added to the other physical descriptions, produces a striking appearence. To observe the minnow, one will have to look closely, for this slender-bodied fish is typically less than 8 centimeters (3.1 in) in length. The Loach Minnow is the only species in its genus. The fish's behavior has been poorly studied. It is assumed that it is a bottom feeder, eating insects and plant matter from the stream floor.

The Loach minnow makes its home in shallow streams with perennial flow, concentrating in turbulent riffles over a rocky bottom. Recurrent flooding keeps the stream floor free of silt and sediment, and because it is better adapted to strong currents, the minnow is able to maintain its population against encroaching non-native fishes.

This species was once common throughout the Verde, Salt, San Francisco, and Gila river systems, totaling 2,800 kilometers (1,750 mi) of stream habitat. This original habitat has been reduced by 80 percent, with the Loach minnow currently found in Aravaipa Creek, Blue River, and the White River in Arizona, and in the upper Gila River and its tributaries in New Mexico. Historically, the fish also existed in Mexico, but habitat there has been largely destroyed by diversion of water for irrigation and the species is thought to be extinct.

As with other native fishes of the Gila River system, the Loach minnow has been seriously harmed by human alteration of the ecosystem. Water diversion and groundwater pumping have detrimentally affected the delicate free-flowing streams in which the minnow makes its home. Stream impoundments, which cause sendimentation to cover the required rocky bottom for the fish, further jeopardizes this threatened species. Despite its advantages in the fast moving water, the minnow is still at risk from the predatory, competitive, non-native fish introduced for recreational purposes.

More than half of the existing Loach minnow population exists on public land. However, competition for water resources is always a potential threat to aquatic species in this arid region. Critical habitat has been designated along 257 km (159 (mi) of stream currently occupied by the minnow, thus ensuring that all water projects are developed in a way that accomodates the species and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Loach Minnow (Tiaroga cobitis). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10898-10906. March 8, 1994.

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Spikedace [Meda fulgida]

The only species in the genus Meda, the Spikedace is distinctive for its silvery sides and its sharp spines on the dorsal and pelvic fins. During the breeding season, it will even turn a brassy, golden color. This is a slender, small fish, less than 7.5 centimeters (3 in) in length.

The Spikedace is a highly mobile creature. Although it has a high reproductive potential, it periodically experiences large fluctuations in population size. This species spawns in spring and feeds on insects, larvae, and plant matter. The fish is found in medium to large perennial streams where it lives in stream pools and shallow riffles over gravel bottoms, with moderate to swift currents. The Spikedace is tolerant of occasional flooding, which gives it a competitive edge over other native fishes in the ecosystem.

Historically, the Spikedace existed in most of the major waters upstream from Phoenix. However, the current distribution of this species in Arizona is limited to the Aravaipa Creek, Eagle Creek, and a portion of the upper Verde River, an area representing only 6 percent of its historic range. The severe decline of this fish is largely due to human manipulation of the rivers. Dam construction, artificial channeling of stream beds, water diversion and groundwater pumping have all resulted in detrimental effects on the habitat of the Spikedace. Similar to the plight of other Arizona fish species, the Spikedace is threatened by the introduction of non-native fish which act as predators and competitors.

Currently, there is stiff competition for the use of water in the sun-drenched state of Arizona. Additional dam construction on the upper Gila River has been proposed, and other water projects also threaten the Spikedace. To help protect this fish's waters, critical habitat has been designated for 154 km (95 mi) of rivers that are currently occupied. The critical habitat designation would not necessarily preclude flood control projects, but would require that such projects also safeguard the Spikedace and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 897-898.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Spikedace (Meda fulgida). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10906-10915. March 8, 1994.

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