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Maricopa County, Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Arizona Agave
Pesticide Table for the Arizona Cliffrose | Pesticide Table for the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow
Pesticide Table for the Yuma Clapper Rail | About the Arizona Agave
About the Arizona Cliffrose | About the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow | About the Yuma Clapper Rail
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Maricopa County, Arizona Map

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Arizona Agave

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
ATRAZINE 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Arizona Cliffrose

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
ATRAZINE 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
METRIBUZIN 32a
OXYFLUORFEN 17b
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
17b Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingre

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa
43a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termiticide
3x, 10a  
DIAZINON    
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
METHOMYL 5a, 196 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1x, 5a, 10a  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5

dients


* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre per applications)
Code Limitations
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
10a Do not apply directly to water within the are described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile upstream from the area.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for groiund applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Yuma Clapper Rail

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
METHYL PARATHION 20c
TEMEPHOS 20c

Limitations on Pesticide Use

Code Limitations
20c Do not apply directly to water within the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Arizona agave [Agave arizonica]

The Arizona agave is a squat, rounded plant with long, flattened leaves that grow all around its base. The elongated, cupped leaves store water during the hot days in the extreme environment of its mountain habitat. This agave is included in a genus of about 300 other species of agave, many of which are used throughout the world for fibers, food, soap, and fermented liquor.

The leaves of this plant grow to about 30 centimeters (12 in) high and 41 centimeters (16 in) broad. However, during its flowering period, the agave grows a tall, slender stalk up to 3.6 meters (12 feet) tall, bearing small, pale-yellow, jar-shaped flowers. The Arizona agave is distinctive for being a very infrequent reproducer, as well as being slow to mature. In fact, most species of this genus take several years to flower. A few species of agave, known as "century plants," die after flowering, apparently because of the high energy requirements of producing the tall flower stalk. Although this would help explain the endangered status of the Arizona agave, it has not yet been determined that this is the case with this specific plant.

The Arizona agave is endemic to a very small area in the creek bottoms and granite hills near the summit of the New River Mountains in central Arizona, at an elevation of 915 to 1,830 meters (3,000 to 6,000 ft). The soils of this habitat are typically gravelly loam, and surrounding vegetation is oak chaparral. Today, this agave only occurs as a series of localized, isolated populations, totaling 168 square kilometers (65 square mi). Recently, the agave has declined from 19 populations to 13 or less, all located in the New River Mountains.

Ironically, the attractiveness of the Arizona agave has become a liability, for it used to be widely sought for decorative purposes in gardens. Even today, the plant is often collected in ignorance of its endangered status and in violation of the Arizona Native Plant Law. Unfortunately, the agave reproduces so slowly that it is very difficult to repopulate areas that have been picked over by collectors. It is believed that this slow reproduction rate is due to cattle, deer, and rabbits that feed on the flower stalks before the seed capsules are able to open. Building fences to protect the plants from the animals has been suggested, but many feel that this would attract collectors to the rare, surviving plants.

Although all of the existing populations of the Arizona agave occur on the protected land of the Tonto National Forest, and federal law prohibits its removal or destruction, it is difficult to protect the plant due to a shortage of personnel to monitor the remote areas where the species lives.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 13-14.

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Arizona cliffrose [Purshia (=Cowania) subintegra]

The Arizona cliffrose is a plant that is well adapted to the harsh environment of the desert. It is an evergreen shrub with pale gray, ragged bark. It's leaves, twigs, and flowers are covered with dense, short white hairs. The thick bark and white hairs enable the cliffrose to insulate itself against the extreme heat of the desert climate. The leaves also have a prominent vein, and the blooming five-petaled flowers are white or yellow. This plant can grow up to 8 feet tall.

The Arizona cliffrose was listed with the scientific name of Cowania subintegra, but has been reclassified as Purshia subintegra. The plant is found on the low rolling hills of the central Arizona uplands, between 2,000 and 3,600 feet elevation. It grows on somewhat gravelly, sandy loam soil, apparently always associated with limestone. Despite its common name, this species occurs on gentle slopes and terraces more often than on very steep slopes. For nearly thirty years, this plant was only known from one population. However, a second population was discovered in 1970, and two more were located in 1984 and 1985. These populations are widely separated in Mohave, Yavapai, Maricopa, and Graham counties.

There are various problems which threaten the existence of the Arizona cliffrose. First of all, the plant reproduces at a very low rate, which severely hampers any recovery of the shrub. Although one population seems capable of viable reproduction, the others have have been unable to adequately sustain themselves. Poor seed viability appears to be a major factor with these latter groups. In addition, over 100 mining claims have been filed in and around one site. The exploration that accompanies these mines scrapes the surface of the ground, destroying plants and extensively damaging the ecosystem. The grazing of cattle, mule deer, and feral burros also threatens the cliffrose, and one population is jeopardized by urbanization.

Currently, three of the Arizona cliffrose populations occur on Federal land, which makes the preservation of most of the plant's habitat feasible. Management programs are attempting to supervise the mining activities, and there is a possibility of fencing portions of the habitat to deter grazing animals.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 114-115.

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Gila and Yaqui topminnow [Poeciliopsis occidentalis]

The Gila topminnow consists of two subspecies, the Gila (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) and the Yaqui (P. occidentalis sonoriensis), both of which are federally listed as endangered. This topminow is included in the same family as the domesticated aquarium guppy, and is similar to the guppy in many aspects. This tiny fish averages 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2 to 1.6 in) in length. It is tan to olive on the upper portions of its body and white below. Similar to other fish, the body colors of breeding males will become more vibrant in order to entice the females. Breeding male topminnows darken to jet black and develop bright yellow fins and golden tints along their midsections.

Although the lifespan of the Gila topminnow is only about one year, the species is a prolific breeder. Gestation varies from 24 to 28 days for the Gila topminnow and 12 to 14 days for the Yaqui subspecies. Unlike most other fish, the topminnow gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. The onset of breeding is affected by water temperature, daylight, and food availability.

Topminnows are able to exist in a broad range of habitats. Though they prefer shallow, warm, and fairly quiet waters, these fish are also found in moderate currents and depths up to 1 meter (3.3 ft). They make their homes in permanent and intermittent streams, marshes, and river banks, where they seek dense mats of algae and debris with sandy substrates for their preferred living environment.

Historically, this topminnow was abundant throughout the Gila River system and Rio Yaqui drainage in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. The current severe reductions of population and suitable habitat are reasons for grave concern for the survival of the this species. The Gila Topminnow still occurs in natural populations at only eight isolated locations in the Santa Cruz River System. It is believed that extensive groundwater pumping and diversion of water for the irrigation of agriculture in Mexico have annihilated the species from that country. The Yaqui topminnow is found only at eight US locations within the Yaqui River headwaters, but is more abundant in Mexico.

Water projects such as dam building and crop irrigation transformed all free-flowing southwestern rivers into intermittent, deeply cut streams or broad, sandy washes, reducing the topminnow populations to a fraction of their pre-1860's range. As with other species of fish found in Arizona, the topminnow is also threatened by aggressive and predatory, non-native fish which have been introduced for recreational purposes. Other introduced species like the related mosquitofish harass adult topminnows and feed on the young, and are a major obstacle to the continuing survival of these fish. Only when a habitat is sufficiently large can these two species coexist.

Some of the topminnow populations are found on National Wildlife Refuges and are well protected. The species is also successfully reared in captivity and has been reintroduced into the wild. However, even with the gifted fertility of this fish, it is clear that the Gila and Yaqui topminnows need large, stable habitats to ensure their survival.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 928-929.

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Yuma clapper rail [Rallus longirostris yumanensis]

The Yuma clapper rail is one of seven North American subspecies of the clapper rail, a henlike marsh bird. The Yuma subspecies is graybrown with a tawny breast, a white throat and undertail, and bars across its flanks. The Yuma clapper rail is a large bird, measuring 36 to 42 centimeters (14 to 16 in) in length.

Clapper rails feed on crayfish, small fish, clams, isopods, and a variety of insects. The birds remain on their US breeding grounds from mid-April to mid-September, when they migrate south to Mexico for the winter. The Yuma clapper cail is a mysterious creature in its breeding and nesting practices. It is thought that the bird lays about six eggs. They construct their various types of nests on dry hammocks or in small shrubs amid dense cattails, just above water level.

In the United States, the Yuma clapper rail seeks out nesting sites among tall cattails and bulrushes along the margins of shallow, stable ponds of freshwater marshes. Western clapper rails range from northern California to central Mexico. It is possible that the Yuma subspecies did not exist in the US along the lower Colorado River area until larger marshes were formed following dam construction. Today, the estimated 1,700-2,000 birds occur in the freshwater marshes along the lower Gila River, the Salton Sea, and along the Colorado River from Needles, CA southward.

Water control projects on the Colorado River have built dams which altered the nature of this free-flowing body of water. Some backwaters were eliminated, but the dams created much new habitat for the birds by allowing sedimentation, which in turn allowed cattail and bulrush marshes to emerge. However, other suitable rail habitat has been lost through dredging and channelization projects along the Colorado River. In addition, the Salton Sea, while providing a significant amount of habitat, is becoming very salty. Regular outbreaks of botulism there have killed numerous birds, including rails.

Although the rail population appears stable, there is no denial that its fate is directly related to the various water projects along the Colorado River. It is clear that the key to preserving the Yuma clapper rail is the maintenance of early growth stages of cattail marsh by creating shallow water areas. The mats of dead cattails in the shallows will eventually provide nesting cover for the rails.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 690-691.

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