Mohave County, Arizona
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Pesticide Table for the Arizona Cliffrose and the Siler Pincushion Cactus
Pesticide Table for the Virgin River Chub Woundfin | Pesticide Table for the Yuma Clapper Rail
About the Arizona Cliffrose | About the Siler Pinchushion Cactus | About the Virgin River Chub
About the Woundfin | About the Yuma Clapper Rail
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Arizona Cliffrose and the Siler Pinchushion Cactus
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|2, 4-D (all forms)||29|
|DICAMBA (all forms)||29|
|DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP)||29|
|MCPA (all forms)||29|
|PICLORAM (all forms)||29|
|17b||Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|29||Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described in the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|32a||Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).|
Virgin River Chub and Woundfin
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|COPPER SULFATE (all salts)||1|
|METHYL PARATHION||3m, 10|
* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
|1||Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|3||Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|3m||Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|5d||Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map.|
|10||Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area shown on the map, nor within 1 mile up all streams from the shaded area.|
|43||Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|399||Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
Yuma Clapper Rail
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|20c||Do not apply directly to water within the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).|
Arizona cliffrose [Purshia (=Cowania) subintegra]
The Arizona cliffrose is a plant that is well adapted to the harsh environment of the desert. It is an evergreen shrub with pale gray, ragged bark. It's leaves, twigs, and flowers are covered with dense, short white hairs. The thick bark and white hairs enable the cliffrose to insulate itself against the extreme heat of the desert climate. The leaves also have a prominent vein, and the blooming five-petaled flowers are white or yellow. This plant can grow up to 8 feet tall.
The Arizona cliffrose was listed with the scientific name of Cowania subintegra, but has been reclassified as Purshia subintegra. The plant is found on the low rolling hills of the central Arizona uplands, between 2,000 and 3,600 feet elevation. It grows on somewhat gravelly, sandy loam soil, apparently always associated with limestone. Despite its common name, this species occurs on gentle slopes and terraces more often than on very steep slopes. For nearly thirty years, this plant was only known from one population. However, a second population was discovered in 1970, and two more were located in 1984 and 1985. These populations are widely separated in Mohave, Yavapai, Maricopa, and Graham counties.
There are various problems which threaten the existence of the Arizona cliffrose. First of all, the plant reproduces at a very low rate, which severely hampers any recovery of the shrub. Although one population seems capable of viable reproduction, the others have have been unable to adequately sustain themselves. Poor seed viability appears to be a major factor with these latter groups. In addition, over 100 mining claims have been filed in and around one site. The exploration that accompanies these mines scrapes the surface of the ground, destroying plants and extensively damaging the ecosystem. The grazing of cattle, mule deer, and feral burros also threatens the cliffrose, and one population is jeopardized by urbanization.
Currently, three of the Arizona cliffrose populations occur on Federal land, which makes the preservation of most of the plant's habitat feasible. Management programs are attempting to supervise the mining activities, and there is a possibility of fencing portions of the habitat to deter grazing animals.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 114-115.
Siler pincushion cactus [Pediocactus sileri]
The Siler pincushion cactus is a tiny, inconspicuous plant measuring up to 10 centimeters (4 in) in diameter. Given its size, this endangered plant could easily be overlooked or stepped upon, if it were not for its flowers. During the spring, bright yellowish flowers about 2.5 centimeters (1 in) in diameter will bloom and produce greenish yellow fruit. Its straight or slightly curved spines are about 2.5 centimeters (1in) long, and are dark brown which lighten to a white color with age.
The Siler pincushion cactus, which also has been known as Echinocactus sileri or Utahia sileri, is found on the gypsum- and calcium-rich soils of barren rolling hills. These soils are high in soluble salts that, while ill-disposed to many plants, apparently suit the needs of this cactus which does not compete well in other soils. Given its predisposition to this highly specific soil type, it is probable that the Siler pincushion never extended beyond its current range of northwestern Arizona and southwestern Utah. Currently, this cactus sparsely populates a narrow band stretching from southeast of Fredonia (Coconino County) west into north-central Mohave County, Arizona, a distance of 70 miles. This band is only 30 miles wide, and as of the mid 1980's, contains about 7,000 individual plants of the species.
The influence of human beings has adversely affected the Siler pincushion cactus. Gypsum mining used to be a major menace to this cactus, but potential uranium mining now seems to be a greater danger. More than 200 uranium plans have been filed in the "Arizona Strip," 81 within the cactus' habitat. A rise in uranium prices could induce mining companies to develop these claims. In addition, portions of the habitat have been overgrazed by livestock, which also contributed to the erosion of the slopes. The sparse, rolling hills are attractive sites for off-road vehicles, which can further erode the delicate environment of the cactus. Collectors also pose a considerable threat to this plant. Despite the plant being considered a species of concern in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and that all cacti are protected under Arizona law, Siler pincushion cacti are not only sought by collectors, but were even offered for sale in five plant catalogs between 1982 and 1984. Monitoring of the plant has been underway since 1986, and attempts are being made to propagate the species in greenhouses to supply the commercial trade.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 307-308.
Virgin River chub [Gila robusta seminuda]
The Virgin River chub is a medium-sized minnow that averages about 8 inches in total length but can grow to a length of 18 inches. It has a silvery, elongated body with a narrow tail and 9 to 10 rays on the dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins. Scales are small and difficult to see. It is an omnivorous fish, feeding on algae, aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, and organic detritus.
This species is endemic to 134 miles of the Virgin River in southwest Utah, northwest Arizona, and southeast Nevada. The Virgin River chub presently occurs in only 50 miles of the mainstream Virgin River between Mesquite, Clark County, Nevada, and La Verkin Creek near Hurricane, Washington County, Utah. It is most common in deeper areas where waters are swift with boulders and other sorts of cover. It occurs over sand and gravel substrates in water less then 90 degrees fahrenheit, and is very tolerant of high salinity and turbidity.
Studies indicate that a large decrease in range and numbers of this species has occurred in the last century, primarily due to water diversions and construction of Hoover Dam and Lake Mead. The potential for additional irrigation projects continues to threaten the existence of this species along with threats from the non-native red shiner and deterioration of water quality from agricultural runoff. The Virgin River Fishes Recovery Team of the Fish and Wildlife service is currently planning recovery for this species and the Woundfin, another federally Endangered fish found in the area.
Moseley, C.J.. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species Vol.III, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. pp. 1411-1412.
Woundfin [Plagopterus argentissimus]
The Woundfin is a streamlined, silvery minnow about 3 inches in length. It has leathery skin, without scales, and has sensors on its lips. It feeds on algae, detritus, seeds, insects, and larvae and is commonly found in shallow, swift flowing water over sand or gravel bottoms or in adjacent pools. The reproductive cycle of this fish is believed to be triggered by lengthening daylight, increasing temperature, and declining spring runoff in late May.
Historically, the Woundfin's range was in the Colorado and Gila river basins in Arizona, Nevada, and Utah. The woundfin now occurs only in the Virgin River. The range extends 36 miles in Utah downstream from the mouth of LaVerkin Creek, 35 miles through the northwest corner of Arizona, and then 12 miles in Nevada down to Lake Mead. There are no population estimates.
Dams, canals, reservoirs, and other water diversions for irrigation and municipal uses have eliminated much of the woundfin habitat. The red shiner, a non-native fish, continues to threaten woundfin populations despite efforts to eliminate them from the Virgin River. Local authorities have also tried to transplant the Woundfin into a number of rivers and creeks but reproduction at these sites has not been successful.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species Vol.II, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. pp. 926-927.
Yuma clapper rail [Rallus longirostris yumanensis]
The Yuma clapper rail is one of seven North American subspecies of the clapper rail, a henlike marsh bird. The Yuma subspecies is graybrown with a tawny breast, a white throat and undertail, and bars across its flanks. The Yuma clapper rail is a large bird, measuring 36 to 42 centimeters (14 to 16 in) in length.
Clapper rails feed on crayfish, small fish, clams, isopods, and a variety of insects. The birds remain on their US breeding grounds from mid-April to mid-September, when they migrate south to Mexico for the winter. The Yuma clapper cail is a mysterious creature in its breeding and nesting practices. It is thought that the bird lays about six eggs. They construct their various types of nests on dry hammocks or in small shrubs amid dense cattails, just above water level.
In the United States, the Yuma clapper rail seeks out nesting sites among tall cattails and bulrushes along the margins of shallow, stable ponds of freshwater marshes. Western clapper rails range from northern California to central Mexico. It is possible that the Yuma subspecies did not exist in the US along the lower Colorado River area until larger marshes were formed following dam construction. Today, the estimated 1,700-2,000 birds occur in the freshwater marshes along the lower Gila River, the Salton Sea, and along the Colorado River from Needles, CA southward.
Water control projects on the Colorado River have built dams which altered the nature of this free-flowing body of water. Some backwaters were eliminated, but the dams created much new habitat for the birds by allowing sedimentation, which in turn allowed cattail and bulrush marshes to emerge. However, other suitable rail habitat has been lost through dredging and channelization projects along the Colorado River. In addition, the Salton Sea, while providing a significant amount of habitat, is becoming very salty. Regular outbreaks of botulism there have killed numerous birds, including rails.
Although the rail population appears stable, there is no denial that its fate is directly related to the various water projects along the Colorado River. It is clear that the key to preserving the Yuma clapper rail is the maintenance of early growth stages of cattail marsh by creating shallow water areas. The mats of dead cattails in the shallows will eventually provide nesting cover for the rails.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 690-691.