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Navajo County, Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Little Colorado Spinedace
Pesticide Table for the Loach Minnow | Pesticide Table for the Navajo Sedge
Pesticide Table for the Peebles Navajo Cactus | About the Little Colorado Spinedace
About the Loach Minnow | About the Navajo Sedge | About the Peebles Navajo Cactus
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Navajo County, Arizona Map

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Little Colorado Spinedace

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3m, 5d  
BENOMYL 1m  
CAPTAN 1m  
CARBARYL 3m  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 199 0.7
CARBOFURAN (non-granular) 1m  
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 1  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 199 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS   
Alfalfa
43  
Apples
41  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3m, 10  
DIAZINON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
DIFLUBENZURON 1m  
DIMETHOATE (granular) 1  
DIMETHOATE (non-granular) 5d, 199 2.3
DISULFOTON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
ESFENVALERATE 3m, 5d  
FLURIDONE 20  
MALATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
MANCOZEB 199 0.75
METHOMYL 3m, 5d  
METHYL PARATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
NALED 5D, 399 2.0
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 199 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 1  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)199 0.75  
PERMETHRIN 3m, 5d  
PHOSMET 1m  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 199 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 199 0.4
PYRETHRINS 1m, 5d, 10  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1m  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 399 3.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application
Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2 Do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for groiund applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5d Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area shown on the map, nor within 1 mile up all streams from the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
199 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
399 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Loach Minnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code 
ALDICARB 199 0.5
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3m, 5d  
BENOMYL 3m  
BENSULIDE  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
399 4
CAPTAN 1m  
CARBARYL 3m  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 299 0.7
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 2  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 399 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS   
Alfalfa
43  
Apples
41  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3m, 10  
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 1m  
DIAZINON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
DICOFOL 399 1
DICROTOPHOS 199 1.2
DIFLUBENZURON 1m  
DIMETHOATE (granular) 3  
DIMETHOATE (non-granular) 3m, 5d  
DISULFOTON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
DIURON 199 4
ENDOSULFAN 3m, 5d  
ESFENVALERATE 1m, 5d  
ETHION 399 3.5
ETHOPROP 1m  
FENAMIPHOS 1m  
FLURIDONE 20  
FONOFOS 1m  
ISOFENPHOS (granular) 1  
ISOFENPHOS (non-granular) 199 2.8
MALATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
MANCOZEB 199 0.75
METHIDATHION 1m  
METHOMYL 5d, 399 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3m, 5d, 10  
NALED 5d, 399 2.0
OXAMYL (granular) 1  
OXAMYL (non-granular) 199 1.5
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 199 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 2  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)399 0.75  
PARATHION (ethyl) (granular) 2  
PARATHION (ethyl) (non-granular) 3m  
PENDIMETHALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3m  
PERMETHRIN 199 0.04
PHORATE 3m  
PHOSMET 3m  
PHOSPHAMIDON 199 4
PROFENOFOS 3m  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 299 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 399 0.4
PROPARGITE 199 1.5
PYRETHRINS 3m, 5d, 10  
SULPROFOS 199 1.5
TERBUFOS 3m  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1m  
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 399 1
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 399 3.5
TRIFLURALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
399 0.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2 Do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
3m Within the shaded area shown on the map and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the shaded area do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5d Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area shown on the map, nor within 1 mile up all streams from the shaded area.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area shown on the map.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
199 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
299 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
399 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Navajo Sedge

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described unbder the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.

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Peebles Navajo Cactus

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA (all forms) 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
METRIBUZIN 32a
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 17b
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular) 17b
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
17b Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described unbder the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

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Little Colorado spinedace [Lepidomeda vittata]

The Little Colorado spinedace is a "counter-shaded" minnow, with a back of olive or bluish to lead gray, and a silvery lower body. The counter shading consists of darker colors on its back to allow the spinedace to blend in with the stream bottom below, in order to protect it from predators above, like birds. The lighter color of its belly is similar to the water surface and sky background when looked at from below, protecting the species from predatory fish.

The Little Colorado spinedace is small, even for a minnow, with a length of around 10 centimeters (4 in). The species has a small head and relatively large eyes. This fish spawns primarily in early summer, continuing at a reduced rate until early fall. Like other minnows, the fish feeds on small insects and organic debris.

The spinedace was first described living in Arizona in 1874, when it was taken from the upper portions of the Little Colorado River. It lives in pools of narrow to moderately sized streams with mild temperatures. During droughts, the fish will retreat to springs and intermittent stream bed pools. During flooding, it will spread throughout the stream. Today, this fish is only found in the upper portions of the Little Colorado River and its cool tributaries in Coconino, Navajo, and Apache counties, Arizona. The species cannot survive in reservoirs or other impoundments.

The decline of the Little Colorado Spinedace is the result of detrimental effects from human settlement along the river. Dam building, water pumping, stream channeling, and road building have radically altered the water system within the spinedace's habitat. As with other species in Arizona, the introduction of non-native fish into the river further jeopardizes the spinedace, threatening the species with new predators and competitors in the ecosystem. Spinedace populations were further diminished by the use of fish toxicants associated with "enhancing" the habitat for gamefish introductions.

Currently, the best protection for the spinedace is federal ownership of much its habitat, along with the inaccessibility of associated private lands. Portions of the Little Colorado River, East Clear Creek, Silver Creek and Nutrioso Creek are protected as part of the National Forest System. However, as the human population increases, there will be mounting pressures for recreational access, water diversion, roads, and other development.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 895-896.

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Loach minnow [Tiaroga cobitis]

The Loach minnow is notable for its highly angled mouth and its eyes that point markedly upward. Its olive-colored body is marked with dirty white spots on its back and tail. The vivid red-orange streaks which cover the bodies of breeding males, when added to the other physical descriptions, produces a striking appearence. To observe the minnow, one will have to look closely, for this slender-bodied fish is typically less than 8 centimeters (3.1 in) in length. The Loach Minnow is the only species in its genus. The fish's behavior has been poorly studied. It is assumed that it is a bottom feeder, eating insects and plant matter from the stream floor.

The Loach minnow makes its home in shallow streams with perennial flow, concentrating in turbulent riffles over a rocky bottom. Recurrent flooding keeps the stream floor free of silt and sediment, and because it is better adapted to strong currents, the minnow is able to maintain its population against encroaching non-native fishes.

This species was once common throughout the Verde, Salt, San Francisco, and Gila river systems, totaling 2,800 kilometers (1,750 mi) of stream habitat. This original habitat has been reduced by 80 percent, with the Loach minnow currently found in Aravaipa Creek, Blue River, and the White River in Arizona, and in the upper Gila River and its tributaries in New Mexico. Historically, the fish also existed in Mexico, but habitat there has been largely destroyed by diversion of water for irrigation and the species is thought to be extinct.

As with other native fishes of the Gila River system, the Loach minnow has been seriously harmed by human alteration of the ecosystem. Water diversion and groundwater pumping have detrimentally affected the delicate free-flowing streams in which the minnow makes its home. Stream impoundments, which cause sendimentation to cover the required rocky bottom for the fish, further jeopardizes this threatened species. Despite its advantages in the fast moving water, the minnow is still at risk from the predatory, competitive, non-native fish introduced for recreational purposes.

More than half of the existing Loach minnow population exists on public land. However, competition for water resources is always a potential threat to aquatic species in this arid region. Critical habitat has been designated along 257 km (159 (mi) of stream currently occupied by the minnow, thus ensuring that all water projects are developed in a way that accomodates the species and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Loach Minnow (Tiaroga cobitis). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10898-10906. March 8, 1994.

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Navajo sedge [Carex specuicola]

Navajo sedge is a grass-like, perennial plant which grows in clumps of long, narrow, wispy pale green leaves. The plant can reach up to 40 centimeters (16 in) in height, and its leaves are usually about 16 centimeters (6.3 in) long. During the spring and summer months, inconspicuous flowers, consisting of small, green-brown, scale-like parts, bloom.

This threatened sedge grows in dense colonies in damp, sandy to silty soils around shady, spring-fed seepages that occur at about 1,750 meters (5,800 ft) elevation. Because of this, the Navajo sedge was probably never common outside of its current distribution in Coconino County, Arizona. Presently, this plant is found at three sites near the Inscription House Ruin on the Navajo Indian Reservation. Each colony covers an area of about 20 square meters (2,152 sq. ft) around the springs, and as of 1980, all of the populations appeared to be healthy.

Although the springs which support the three Navajo sedge populations are also used to water livestock, the current water arrangement channels water into troughs, away from the sedges and keeps damage to the plants, from trampling, at a minimum. An increase in the number of livestock would certainly increase the damage to the plants, and the populations would most likely be fenced for protection, or the grazing practices modified. The recovery plan for the Navajo sedge recommends restricting cattle from the sedges' habitats to avoid the trampling of plants.

Despite this risk from the livestock, the Fish and Wildlife Service appears content to maintain the current equilibrium between plant and animal. To further ensure the safety of the plants, however, Critical Habitat has been desiginated for all three populations, comprising about 600 square meters (0.015 acres).

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 75-76.
US Fish and Wildlife Service. 1987. Navajo Sedge Recovery Plan. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 39 pp.

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Peebles Navajo cactus [Pediocactus peeblesianus var peeblesianus]

Also known as the Navajo plains cactus, the Peebles Navajo cactus is a tiny plant, growing up to 2.5 centimeters (1 in) tall and 2 centimeters (0.75 in) in diameter. During dry weather, the stem will retract into the ground, making the cactus very difficult to locate. In the springtime, yellow to yellow-green flowers bloom and are often larger than then the stem itself.

The Peebles Navajo cactus grows on sunny slopes and flat hilltops of well-drained, gravelly soils. The preferred soils are found in a strip about 1.6 kilometers (1 mi) wide and 11 kilometers (7 mi) long, running across the hills north of Holbrook, Arizona, at an elevation of about 1700 meters (5500 ft). The species has been common near this region in central Navajo County, but its numbers have been diminishing. Currently, the plant is limited to the area around Holbrook. In 1987, the five known populations of the plant were estimated to contain about 1,000 plants, occurring both on public and private land.

Throughout its history, much of the suitable habitat for this plant has been destroyed by gravel quarrying, which is often done in the gravels that the cactus prefers. Peebles Navajo cacti are also jeopardized by the expansion of Holbrook, with remaining cactus habitat considered prime land for residential development. Because it is a difficult plant to cultivate, collectors pose a serious threat to the cactus in their pursuit of native plants. Despite the Peebles Navajo cactus being listed as a rare species by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and that it is protected under Arizona law, this cactus still suffers due to the difficulty in preventing widespread collection. Although intensive monitoring programs and surveys have been conducted, no new populations have been discovered.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 305-306.

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