Jump to main content.


Pinal County, Arizona

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

How to Use this Information
Pesticide Table for the Arizona Hedgehog Cactus and the Nichol's Turk Head Cactus
Pesticide Table for the Desert Pupfish | Pesticide Table for the Loach Minnow and the Spikedace About the Arizona Hedgehog Cactus | About the Desert Pupfish
About the Loach Minnow | About the Nichol's Turk's Head Cactus | About the Spikedace
Arizona Map | ESPP Home


Click on Map to Enlarge

Pinal County, Arizona

Top of page

Arizona Hedgehog Cactus and the Nichol's Turk Head Cactus

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
2, 4-D (all forms) 29
ATRAZINE 29
CLOPYRALID 29
DICAMBA 29
DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP) 29
HEXAZINONE 29
MCPA (all forms) 29
METRIBUZIN 32a
OXYFLUOREN (granular) 17b
OXYFLUOREN (non-granular) 17b
PARAQUAT 29
PICLORAM (all forms) 29
SULFOMETURON METHYL 32a
TEBUTHIURON 29
Code Limitations
17b Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 100 yards of the habitat, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
29 Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
32a Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of -way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).

Top of page

Desert Pupfish

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
ALDICARB 2a 
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2a  
BENOMYL 2a  
BENSULIDE  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
2a  
CAPTAN 2a  
CARBARYL 2a  
CARBOFURAN 2a  
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 2a  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 2a  
CHLORPYRIFOS   
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termiticide
3a  
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 2a  
DIAZINON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3a  
DICOFOL 2a  
DICROTOPHOS 2a  
DISULFOTON 2a  
ENDOSULFAN 2a  
ETHION 2a  
ETHOPROP 2a  
FENAMIPHOS 2a  
FONOFOS 2a  
ISOFENPHOS 2a  
MALATHION 3a, 5a  
MANCOZEB 2a  
METHIDATHION 2a  
METHOMYL 5a, 196 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3a, 5a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
OXAMYL 2a  
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 2a  
OXYFLUORFEN 2a  
PARATHION (ethyl) 2a  
PENDIMETHALIN 2a  
PHORATE 2a  
PHOSMET 2a  
PROFENOFOS 2a  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PROPARGITE 2a  
PYRETHRINS 1a, 5a  
SULPROFOS 2a  
TERBUFOS 2a  
THIODICARB 2a  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 2a  
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5
TRIFLURALIN 2a  

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre application)
Code Limitations
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
2g For applications that will not be soil-incorporated, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications, within the area described under the Shading Key.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

Top of page

Loach Minnow and the Spikedace

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code TAR*
ALDICARB 196 0.5
AZINPHOS-METHYL 3x, 5a  
BENOMYL 3x  
BENSULIDE  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
396 4
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CARBOFURAN (granular) 296 0.7
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 2a  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 396 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS   
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termitcide
3x, 10a  
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 1x  
DIAZINON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DICOFOL 396 1
DICROTOPHOS 196 1.2
DIFLUBENZURON 1x  
DIMETHOATE 3a, 5a  
DISULFOTON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DIURON 196 4
ENDOSULFAN 3x, 5a  
ETHION 396 3.5
ETHOPROP 1x  
FENAMIPHOS 1x  
FLURIDONE 20a  
FONOFOS 1x  
ISOFENPHOS (granular) 1a  
ISOFENPHOS (non-granular) 196 2.8
MALATHION 3x, 5a, 10  
MANCOZEB 196 0.75
METHIDATHION 1x  
METHOMYL 5a, 396 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a, 10a  
NALED 5a, 396 2.0
OXAMYL (granular) 1a
OXAMYL (non-granular) 196 1.5
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 196 2.5
OXYFLUORFEN (granular) 2a  
OXYFLUORFEN (non-granular)396 0.75  
PARATHION (ethyl) (granular) 2a  
PARATHION (ethyl) (non-granular) 3x  
PENDIMETHALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
PHORATE 3x  
PHOSMET 3x  
PHOSPHAMIDON 196 4
PROFENOFOS 3x  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PROPARGITE 196 1.5
PYRETHRINS 3x, 5a, 10a  
SULPROFOS 196 1.5
TERBUFOS 3x  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 1x  
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 5a, 396 1
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5
TRIFLURALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
396 0.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
Code Limitations
1a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and up to 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
10a Do not apply directly to water within the area described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile upstream from the area.
20a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply directly to water.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area shown on the map for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

Top of page

Arizona hedgehog cactus [Echinocereus triglochidialus var arizonicus]

The Arizona hedgehog cactus, like other hedgehog cacti, is a dimunitive, branched cactus with showy flowers. Despite its small size of up to 40 cm (16 in) in height, it is one of the largest of the red-flowering hegehog cacti. The bright red flowers with greenish midribs burst out of the dense clumps of egg-shaped branches, blooming in late April to mid-May. The spines, up to 3.6 cm (1.5 in), are a dark grey color tinged with pink.

This species, which also has been known as Echinocereus arizonicus, is restricted to granite boulder outcrops in mountain woodlands at 1,160 to 1,585 meters (3,800 to 5,200 ft) elevation. Historically, the Arizona hedgehog cactus thrived in the wooded highlands of central Arizona, between Miami and Superior, north of the Gila River. The current range of the cactus is much the same as before, but populations are considerably smaller and tend to be concentrated in rugged, inaccessible areas. At present, the number of of individuals of the species is unkown, but is considered "low".

The largest threat to the existence of the Arizona hedgehog cactus is a result of its beauty. Collectors who crave its bright red flowers have hunted the plant nearly to extinction. Even though this cactus is listed as a species of concern by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), and is included in the Arizona law which protects all cacti, collectors regularly remove the Arizona hedgehog cactus from the wild. Because of its low numbers and extremely restricted range, collecting the cactus can deplete its population in a short time. Active copper mining and other developments of mineral exploration further threaten the Arizona Hedgehog Cactus.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 152-153.

Top of page

Desert pupfish [Cyprinodon macularius]

The Desert pupfish is a tiny, skinny fish with a smoothly rounded body. The male rarely grows larger than 7.5 centimeters (3 in). Like many other fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, males don bright breeding colors during the mating season to attract females. With the Desert pupfish, the males turn bright blue on the head and sides, and yellow on the tail. Females and juveniles usually have tan to olive backs and silvery sides. The narrow, vertical, dark bars on the sides of adults are often interrupted and give the curious impression of a disjunct, lateral band along the fish.

In its life of about one year, the Desert pupfish matures rapidly and propagates often, producing up to three generations during its short existence. Spawning occurs throughout the spring and summer months. Females lay their eggs on submerged plants in shallow water, and males will defend the eggs up to three days until they hatch. Within hours of birth, the young begin to feed themselves on small plants and insects.

The Desert pupfish is adapted to live in the extreme climate of a harsh desert environment. This species is capable of living in water with temperatures in excess of 43 degrees C (110 F). This fish was first described in 1853 when it was collected in the San Pedro River of Arizona. It has recently been divided into two named subspecies, with possibly a third, undescribed subpecies in Mexico. It was once common in many of the desert springs, marshes, and tributary streams of Arizona, California, and Mexico. Today, the Colorado River subspecies, C. macularius macularius, is found in several Salton Sea tributaries in California, as well as associated shoreline pools and irrigation drains. In Arizona, the subspecies C. macularius eremus lives in the Quitobaquito Spring within the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. The species is also thought to inhabit adjacent waters in Mexico.

The largest impacts on the Desert pupfish were the groundwater pumping and the construction of dams on the Gila, Colorado, and Salt Rivers. The dams block the water flow to the lower areas of the rivers, eliminating many of the marshy pools in which the pupfish breeds. As a result, the fish are forced into mainstream channels, where they are quickly preyed upon by larger predators, many of which are fish species introduced for recreational purposes. Although it is a resilient and hardy species in many respects, the tiny Desert pupfish is unable to adequately compete and defend itself in foreign waters populated by non-native fish.

Currently, with the irrevocable loss of so much suitable habitat, the Desert pupfish is being bred in captivity for the purpose of reintroduction into the environment. At the present time, it is unclear how successful the reintroduction programs have been. However, it is clear that there are many human obstacles which will continue to make the survival of the Desert pupfish difficult.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.

Top of page

Loach minnow [Tiaroga cobitis]

The Loach minnow is notable for its highly angled mouth and its eyes that point markedly upward. Its olive-colored body is marked with dirty white spots on its back and tail. The vivid red-orange streaks which cover the bodies of breeding males, when added to the other physical descriptions, produces a striking appearence. To observe the minnow, one will have to look closely, for this slender-bodied fish is typically less than 8 centimeters (3.1 in) in length. The Loach Minnow is the only species in its genus. The fish's behavior has been poorly studied. It is assumed that it is a bottom feeder, eating insects and plant matter from the stream floor.

The Loach minnow makes its home in shallow streams with perennial flow, concentrating in turbulent riffles over a rocky bottom. Recurrent flooding keeps the stream floor free of silt and sediment, and because it is better adapted to strong currents, the minnow is able to maintain its population against encroaching non-native fishes.

This species was once common throughout the Verde, Salt, San Francisco, and Gila river systems, totaling 2,800 kilometers (1,750 mi) of stream habitat. This original habitat has been reduced by 80 percent, with the Loach minnow currently found in Aravaipa Creek, Blue River, and the White River in Arizona, and in the upper Gila River and its tributaries in New Mexico. Historically, the fish also existed in Mexico, but habitat there has been largely destroyed by diversion of water for irrigation and the species is thought to be extinct.

As with other native fishes of the Gila River system, the Loach minnow has been seriously harmed by human alteration of the ecosystem. Water diversion and groundwater pumping have detrimentally affected the delicate free-flowing streams in which the minnow makes its home. Stream impoundments, which cause sendimentation to cover the required rocky bottom for the fish, further jeopardizes this threatened species. Despite its advantages in the fast moving water, the minnow is still at risk from the predatory, competitive, non-native fish introduced for recreational purposes.

More than half of the existing Loach minnow population exists on public land. However, competition for water resources is always a potential threat to aquatic species in this arid region. Critical habitat has been designated along 257 km (159 (mi) of stream currently occupied by the minnow, thus ensuring that all water projects are developed in a way that accomodates the species and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Loach Minnow (Tiaroga cobitis). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10898-10906. March 8, 1994.

Top of page

Nichol's turk's head cactus [Echinocactus horizonthalonius var nicholii]

Nichol's turk's head vactus is a barrel-shaped cactus with spines growing from vertical, spiraling ridges. This plant grows to a maximum height of 50 centimeters (20 in) and a diameter of 20 centimeters (8 in). From April to mid-May, large, bright pink or purplish flowers bloom. Although the cactus grows as a single, blue-green stem, it may appear to have multiple stems due to the seedlings which often grow around its base.

The Nichol's turk's head cactus is found within the Sonoran Desert of southern Arizona at sites in full sun on limestone slopes, often growing in soils rich in calcium carbonate. This semi-arid habitat receives less than 33 centimeters (13 in) of annual rainfall, and at 1,080 meters (3,500 ft), freezing temperatures occur only about five nights per winter. The cactus is endemic to the Sonoran Desert, and in the past thrived in this land and in adjacent Mexico. Currently, most of the exisitng cactus populations are grouped at only two locations in south-central Arizona, occuring at the Waterman and Vekol Mountains of Pima and Pinal Counties. Other smaller populations have been reported in Arizona and northwestern Mexico.

Human activites have detrimentally affected the Nichol's turk's head cactus in numerous ways. Limestone quarries have eliminated a small cacti population in the Waterman Mountains, and roads leading to this quarry cut through several other colonies. Recreational off-road vehicles have damaged habitat and destroyed plants. Hunters have even used cacti for target practice. However, the largest threat to the survival of this cactus is from collectors. Between 1982 and 1984, Nichol's turk's head cacti were advertised for sale in eleven different plant catalogs, despite the fact that it was listed as an endangered species in 1979.

Legislation has been the primary tool in preserving this species. The Nichol's turk's head cactus is protected by the Arizona Native Plant Law, and is included in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which restricts the trading of this and other plants. However, more strict enforcement of the Lacey Act, which makes it illegal to buy or sell any plant which was acquired or possessed in violation of any law, will be necessary to deter collectors. Since many of the Nichol's turk's head cacti occur on lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management, proper regulations of quarrying activities will do much to preserve the remaining plants of this species.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 140-141.

Top of page

Spikedace [Meda fulgida]

The only species in the genus Meda, the Spikedace is distinctive for its silvery sides and its sharp spines on the dorsal and pelvic fins. During the breeding season, it will even turn a brassy, golden color. This is a slender, small fish, less than 7.5 centimeters (3 in) in length.

The Spikedace is a highly mobile creature. Although it has a high reproductive potential, it periodically experiences large fluctuations in population size. This species spawns in spring and feeds on insects, larvae, and plant matter. The fish is found in medium to large perennial streams where it lives in stream pools and shallow riffles over gravel bottoms, with moderate to swift currents. The Spikedace is tolerant of occasional flooding, which gives it a competitive edge over other native fishes in the ecosystem.

Historically, the Spikedace existed in most of the major waters upstream from Phoenix. However, the current distribution of this species in Arizona is limited to the Aravaipa Creek, Eagle Creek, and a portion of the upper Verde River, an area representing only 6 percent of its historic range. The severe decline of this fish is largely due to human manipulation of the rivers. Dam construction, artificial channeling of stream beds, water diversion and groundwater pumping have all resulted in detrimental effects on the habitat of the Spikedace. Similar to the plight of other Arizona fish species, the Spikedace is threatened by the introduction of non-native fish which act as predators and competitors.

Currently, there is stiff competition for the use of water in the sun-drenched state of Arizona. Additional dam construction on the upper Gila River has been proposed, and other water projects also threaten the Spikedace. To help protect this fish's waters, critical habitat has been designated for 154 km (95 mi) of rivers that are currently occupied. The critical habitat designation would not necessarily preclude flood control projects, but would require that such projects also safeguard the Spikedace and its habitat.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 897-898.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Spikedace (Meda fulgida). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10906-10915. March 8, 1994.

Top of page

Publications | Glossary | A-Z Index | Jobs


Local Navigation


Jump to main content.