Yavapai County, Arizona - Region A
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Pesticide Table for the Arizona Cliffrose
Pesticide Table for the Desert Pupfish and the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow
About the Arizona Cliffrose | About the Desert Pupfish
About the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow | About the Gila Trout
Arizona Map | ESPP Home
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|2, 4-D (all forms)||29|
|DICAMBA (all forms)||29|
|DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP)||29|
|MCPA (all forms)||29|
|PICLORAM (all forms)||29|
|29||Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|32a||Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).|
Desert Pupfish and the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|COPPER SULFATE (all salts)||2a|
|MALATHION||3x. 5a, 10a|
|METHYL PARATHION||3x, 5a|
* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre per applications)
|1x||Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|2a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.|
|3x||Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|5a||Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.|
|41a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|43a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|196||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|296||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.|
|396||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
Arizona cliffrose [Purshia (=Cowania) subintegra]
The Arizona cliffrose is a plant that is well adapted to the harsh environment of the desert. It is an evergreen shrub with pale gray, ragged bark. It's leaves, twigs, and flowers are covered with dense, short white hairs. The thick bark and white hairs enable the cliffrose to insulate itself against the extreme heat of the desert climate. The leaves also have a prominent vein, and the blooming five-petaled flowers are white or yellow. This plant can grow up to 8 feet tall.
The Arizona cliffrose was listed with the scientific name of Cowania subintegra, but has been reclassified as Purshia subintegra. The plant is found on the low rolling hills of the central Arizona uplands, between 2,000 and 3,600 feet elevation. It grows on somewhat gravelly, sandy loam soil, apparently always associated with limestone. Despite its common name, this species occurs on gentle slopes and terraces more often than on very steep slopes. For nearly thirty years, this plant was only known from one population. However, a second population was discovered in 1970, and two more were located in 1984 and 1985. These populations are widely separated in Mohave, Yavapai, Maricopa, and Graham counties.
There are various problems which threaten the existence of the Arizona cliffrose. First of all, the plant reproduces at a very low rate, which severely hampers any recovery of the shrub. Although one population seems capable of viable reproduction, the others have have been unable to adequately sustain themselves. Poor seed viability appears to be a major factor with these latter groups. In addition, over 100 mining claims have been filed in and around one site. The exploration that accompanies these mines scrapes the surface of the ground, destroying plants and extensively damaging the ecosystem. The grazing of cattle, mule deer, and feral burros also threatens the cliffrose, and one population is jeopardized by urbanization.
Currently, three of the Arizona cliffrose populations occur on Federal land, which makes the preservation of most of the plant's habitat feasible. Management programs are attempting to supervise the mining activities, and there is a possibility of fencing portions of the habitat to deter grazing animals.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 114-115.
Desert pupfish [Cyprinodon macularius]
The Desert pupfish is a tiny, skinny fish with a smoothly rounded body. The male rarely grows larger than 7.5 centimeters (3 in). Like many other fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, males don bright breeding colors during the mating season to attract females. With the Desert pupfish, the males turn bright blue on the head and sides, and yellow on the tail. Females and juveniles usually have tan to olive backs and silvery sides. The narrow, vertical, dark bars on the sides of adults are often interrupted and give the curious impression of a disjunct, lateral band along the fish.
In its life of about one year, the Desert pupfish matures rapidly and propagates often, producing up to three generations during its short existence. Spawning occurs throughout the spring and summer months. Females lay their eggs on submerged plants in shallow water, and males will defend the eggs up to three days until they hatch. Within hours of birth, the young begin to feed themselves on small plants and insects.
The Desert pupfish is adapted to live in the extreme climate of a harsh desert environment. This species is capable of living in water with temperatures in excess of 43 degrees C (110 F). This fish was first described in 1853 when it was collected in the San Pedro River of Arizona. It has recently been divided into two named subspecies, with possibly a third, undescribed subpecies in Mexico. It was once common in many of the desert springs, marshes, and tributary streams of Arizona, California, and Mexico. Today, the Colorado River subspecies, C. macularius macularius, is found in several Salton Sea tributaries in California, as well as associated shoreline pools and irrigation drains. In Arizona, the subspecies C. macularius eremus lives in the Quitobaquito Spring within the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument. The species is also thought to inhabit adjacent waters in Mexico.
The largest impacts on the Desert pupfish were the groundwater pumping and the construction of dams on the Gila, Colorado, and Salt Rivers. The dams block the water flow to the lower areas of the rivers, eliminating many of the marshy pools in which the pupfish breeds. As a result, the fish are forced into mainstream channels, where they are quickly preyed upon by larger predators, many of which are fish species introduced for recreational purposes. Although it is a resilient and hardy species in many respects, the tiny Desert pupfish is unable to adequately compete and defend itself in foreign waters populated by non-native fish.
Currently, with the irrevocable loss of so much suitable habitat, the Desert pupfish is being bred in captivity for the purpose of reintroduction into the environment. At the present time, it is unclear how successful the reintroduction programs have been. However, it is clear that there are many human obstacles which will continue to make the survival of the Desert pupfish difficult.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 825-826.
Gila and Yaqui topminnow [Poeciliopsis occidentalis]
The Gila topminnow consists of two subspecies, the Gila (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) and the Yaqui (P. occidentalis sonoriensis), both of which are federally listed as endangered. This topminow is included in the same family as the domesticated aquarium guppy, and is similar to the guppy in many aspects. This tiny fish averages 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2 to 1.6 in) in length. It is tan to olive on the upper portions of its body and white below. Similar to other fish, the body colors of breeding males will become more vibrant in order to entice the females. Breeding male topminnows darken to jet black and develop bright yellow fins and golden tints along their midsections.
Although the lifespan of the Gila topminnow is only about one year, the species is a prolific breeder. Gestation varies from 24 to 28 days for the Gila topminnow and 12 to 14 days for the Yaqui subspecies. Unlike most other fish, the topminnow gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. The onset of breeding is affected by water temperature, daylight, and food availability.
Topminnows are able to exist in a broad range of habitats. Though they prefer shallow, warm, and fairly quiet waters, these fish are also found in moderate currents and depths up to 1 meter (3.3 ft). They make their homes in permanent and intermittent streams, marshes, and river banks, where they seek dense mats of algae and debris with sandy substrates for their preferred living environment.
Historically, this topminnow was abundant throughout the Gila River system and Rio Yaqui drainage in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. The current severe reductions of population and suitable habitat are reasons for grave concern for the survival of the this species. The Gila Topminnow still occurs in natural populations at only eight isolated locations in the Santa Cruz River System. It is believed that extensive groundwater pumping and diversion of water for the irrigation of agriculture in Mexico have annihilated the species from that country. The Yaqui topminnow is found only at eight US locations within the Yaqui River headwaters, but is more abundant in Mexico.
Water projects such as dam building and crop irrigation transformed all free-flowing southwestern rivers into intermittent, deeply cut streams or broad, sandy washes, reducing the topminnow populations to a fraction of their pre-1860's range. As with other species of fish found in Arizona, the topminnow is also threatened by aggressive and predatory, non-native fish which have been introduced for recreational purposes. Other introduced species like the related mosquitofish harass adult topminnows and feed on the young, and are a major obstacle to the continuing survival of these fish. Only when a habitat is sufficiently large can these two species coexist.
Some of the topminnow populations are found on National Wildlife Refuges and are well protected. The species is also successfully reared in captivity and has been reintroduced into the wild. However, even with the gifted fertility of this fish, it is clear that the Gila and Yaqui topminnows need large, stable habitats to ensure their survival.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 928-929.
Gila trout [Salmo gilae]
The Gila trout is distinctive for its radiant golden sides, which grade to a dark copper color on the gill covers. The fins all have white to yellowish tips, and during the spawning seasons which occur in April and May, the normally white belly may be streaked with yellow or orange colors. Irregular spotting is prominent on its back and sides. This endangered species usually grows about 25 to 34 centimeters (10 to 14 in) in length.
This trout is endemic to high elevation waters of the Mogollon Plateau of New Mexico and Arizona, and was once common throughout these states. By 1978, native populations of the Gila trout were confined to five streams in New Mexico, in addition to two streams in Mexico and Arizona where the trout had been introduced. Healthy breeding populations have survived in the Gila Wilderness Area, providing a strong base for reintroduction efforts.
The Gila trout is an opportunistic predator, feeding on insects and aquatic invertebrates. This fish makes its home in clear, cool streams with moderate current and sufficient depth and cover to provide refuge during severe droughts. The species will even travel to deeper pools or shallow water in search of protective debris or plant beds.
The decline of this trout is largely due to the degradation of its aquatic habitat, heavy fishing, and interbreeding with non-native fish which were introduced for recreational purposes. Recovery efforts have focused on the establishment of refuges for the Gila trout in higher quality streams by removing non-native fishes, erecting barriers preventing their return, and reintroducing the trout into the areas. By the end of 1987, seven thriving populations of Gila trout had been established - all on the public land of the Forest Service. Restoration efforts have been so successful that the Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed to "downlist" the Gila trout from an endangered to threatened species.
The recovery of the Gila trout is being aided by support from sport fishermen who are emphasizing the trout's potential as a game fish. Because many of the habitat streams are carrying the full capacity of fish due to the prosperous reintroduction programs, controlled sport fishing is allowed and is not expected to interfere with the recovery of the trout. Ideally, future efforts will use a captive propagation program to expand the range of the Gila trout by restocking larger streams.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 948-949.