Yavapai County, Arizona - Region B
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Pesticide Table for the Arizona Cliffrose | Pesticide Table for the Spikedace
About the Arizona Cliffrose | About the Spikedace
Yavapai County Regional Map |Arizona Map | ESPP Home
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|2, 4-D (all forms)||29|
|DICAMBA (all forms)||29|
|DICHLORPROP (2, 4-DP)||29|
|MCPA (all forms)||29|
|PICLORAM (all forms)||29|
|29||Do not apply this pesticide in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key). For ground applications do not apply within 20 yards of the habitat, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|32a||Do not apply this pesticide on rights-of-way in the species habitat (described under the Shading Key).|
Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|COPPER SULFATE (all salts)||1x|
|MALATHION||3x, 5a, 10a|
|METHYL PARATHION||3x, 5a, 10a|
|PYRETHRINS||3x, 5a, 10a|
|TRIBUFOS (DEF)||5a, 396||1|
* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredients per acre per application)
|1a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|1x||Within the area described under the Shading Key and up to 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|2a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.|
|3x||Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|5a||Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.|
|10a||Do not apply directly to water within the area described under the Shading Key, nor within 1 mile upstream from the area.|
|20a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply directly to water.|
|41a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|43a||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|196||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|296||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.|
|396||Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
Arizona cliffrose [Purshia (=Cowania) subintegra]
The Arizona cliffrose is a plant that is well adapted to the harsh environment of the desert. It is an evergreen shrub with pale gray, ragged bark. It's leaves, twigs, and flowers are covered with dense, short white hairs. The thick bark and white hairs enable the cliffrose to insulate itself against the extreme heat of the desert climate. The leaves also have a prominent vein, and the blooming five-petaled flowers are white or yellow. This plant can grow up to 8 feet tall.
The Arizona cliffrose was listed with the scientific name of Cowania subintegra, but has been reclassified as Purshia subintegra. The plant is found on the low rolling hills of the central Arizona uplands, between 2,000 and 3,600 feet elevation. It grows on somewhat gravelly, sandy loam soil, apparently always associated with limestone. Despite its common name, this species occurs on gentle slopes and terraces more often than on very steep slopes. For nearly thirty years, this plant was only known from one population. However, a second population was discovered in 1970, and two more were located in 1984 and 1985. These populations are widely separated in Mohave, Yavapai, Maricopa, and Graham counties.
There are various problems which threaten the existence of the Arizona cliffrose. First of all, the plant reproduces at a very low rate, which severely hampers any recovery of the shrub. Although one population seems capable of viable reproduction, the others have have been unable to adequately sustain themselves. Poor seed viability appears to be a major factor with these latter groups. In addition, over 100 mining claims have been filed in and around one site. The exploration that accompanies these mines scrapes the surface of the ground, destroying plants and extensively damaging the ecosystem. The grazing of cattle, mule deer, and feral burros also threatens the cliffrose, and one population is jeopardized by urbanization.
Currently, three of the Arizona cliffrose populations occur on Federal land, which makes the preservation of most of the plant's habitat feasible. Management programs are attempting to supervise the mining activities, and there is a possibility of fencing portions of the habitat to deter grazing animals.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 114-115.
Spikedace [Meda fulgida]
The only species in the genus Meda, the Spikedace is distinctive for its silvery sides and its sharp spines on the dorsal and pelvic fins. During the breeding season, it will even turn a brassy, golden color. This is a slender, small fish, less than 7.5 centimeters (3 in) in length.
The Spikedace is a highly mobile creature. Although it has a high reproductive potential, it periodically experiences large fluctuations in population size. This species spawns in spring and feeds on insects, larvae, and plant matter. The fish is found in medium to large perennial streams where it lives in stream pools and shallow riffles over gravel bottoms, with moderate to swift currents. The Spikedace is tolerant of occasional flooding, which gives it a competitive edge over other native fishes in the ecosystem.
Historically, the Spikedace existed in most of the major waters upstream from Phoenix. However, the current distribution of this species in Arizona is limited to the Aravaipa Creek, Eagle Creek, and a portion of the upper Verde River, an area representing only 6 percent of its historic range. The severe decline of this fish is largely due to human manipulation of the rivers. Dam construction, artificial channeling of stream beds, water diversion and groundwater pumping have all resulted in detrimental effects on the habitat of the Spikedace. Similar to the plight of other Arizona fish species, the Spikedace is threatened by the introduction of non-native fish which act as predators and competitors.
Currently, there is stiff competition for the use of water in the sun-drenched state of Arizona. Additional dam construction on the upper Gila River has been proposed, and other water projects also threaten the Spikedace. To help protect this fish's waters, critical habitat has been designated for 154 km (95 mi) of rivers that are currently occupied. The critical habitat designation would not necessarily preclude flood control projects, but would require that such projects also safeguard the Spikedace and its habitat.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 897-898.
US Department of Interior. 1994. Designation of Critical Habitat for the Threatened Spikedace (Meda fulgida). Federal Register, vol. 59, pp. 10906-10915. March 8, 1994.