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Yavapai County, Arizona - Region C

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow| About the Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow
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Gila (Yaqui) Topminnow

Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients

Active Ingredient Code
ALDICARB 2a  
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2a  
BENOMYL 2a  
BENSULIDE  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
2a  
CAPTAN 1x  
CARBARYL 3x  
CARBOFURAN 2a  
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 2a  
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 2a  
CHLORPYRIFOS   
Alfalfa
43a  
Apples
41a  
All Other Uses Except
as a Termiticide
3x  
COPPER SULFATE (all salts) 2a  
CYPERMETHRIN   
(Cabbage and Lettuce)
2a  
DIAZINON
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
3x  
DICOFOL 2a  
DICROTOPHOS 2a  
DISULFOTON  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
2a  
ENDOSULFAN 2a  
ESFENVALERATE 2a  
ETHION 2a  
ETHOPROP 2a  
FENAMIPHOS 2a  
FONOFOS 2a  
ISOFENPHOS (granular) 2a  
ISOFENPHOS (non-granular) 2a  
MALATHION 3x. 5a, 10a  
MANCOZEB 2a  
METHIDATHION 2a  
METHOMYL 5a, 196 0.2
METHYL PARATHION 3x, 5a  
PENDIMETHALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
2a  
PERMETHRIN 2a  
PHORATE 2a  
PHOSMET 2a  
PROFENOFOS 2a  
PROPACHLOR (granular) 296 1.3
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 396 0.4
PROPARGITE 2a  
PYRETHRINS 1x, 5a  
SULPROFOS 2a  
TERBUFOS 2a  
THIODICARB 2a  
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 2a  
TRIBUFOS (DEF) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (granular) 2a  
TRICHLORFON (non-granular) 396 3.5
TRIFLURALIN  
Granular Formulations and
Soil-incorporated Liquids
2a  
Liquids not Soil-incorporated
2a  

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre per applications)
Code Limitations
1x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile up all streams that join the area, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
2a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
3x Within the area described under the Shading Key and 1/2 mile, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
5a Do not apply ultra low volume (ULV) applications within 1 mile from the edge of water within the area described under the Shading Key.
41a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43a Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
196 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 20 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
296 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
396 Within the area described under the Shading Key, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.

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Gila and Yaqui topminnow [Poeciliopsis occidentalis]

The Gila topminnow consists of two subspecies, the Gila (Poeciliopsis occidentalis occidentalis) and the Yaqui (P. occidentalis sonoriensis), both of which are federally listed as endangered. This topminow is included in the same family as the domesticated aquarium guppy, and is similar to the guppy in many aspects. This tiny fish averages 3 to 4 centimeters (1.2 to 1.6 in) in length. It is tan to olive on the upper portions of its body and white below. Similar to other fish, the body colors of breeding males will become more vibrant in order to entice the females. Breeding male topminnows darken to jet black and develop bright yellow fins and golden tints along their midsections.

Although the lifespan of the Gila topminnow is only about one year, the species is a prolific breeder. Gestation varies from 24 to 28 days for the Gila topminnow and 12 to 14 days for the Yaqui subspecies. Unlike most other fish, the topminnow gives birth to live young, as opposed to laying eggs. The onset of breeding is affected by water temperature, daylight, and food availability.

Topminnows are able to exist in a broad range of habitats. Though they prefer shallow, warm, and fairly quiet waters, these fish are also found in moderate currents and depths up to 1 meter (3.3 ft). They make their homes in permanent and intermittent streams, marshes, and river banks, where they seek dense mats of algae and debris with sandy substrates for their preferred living environment.

Historically, this topminnow was abundant throughout the Gila River system and Rio Yaqui drainage in Arizona, New Mexico, and northern Sonora and Chihuahua, Mexico. The current severe reductions of population and suitable habitat are reasons for grave concern for the survival of the this species. The Gila Topminnow still occurs in natural populations at only eight isolated locations in the Santa Cruz River System. It is believed that extensive groundwater pumping and diversion of water for the irrigation of agriculture in Mexico have annihilated the species from that country. The Yaqui topminnow is found only at eight US locations within the Yaqui River headwaters, but is more abundant in Mexico.

Water projects such as dam building and crop irrigation transformed all free-flowing southwestern rivers into intermittent, deeply cut streams or broad, sandy washes, reducing the topminnow populations to a fraction of their pre-1860's range. As with other species of fish found in Arizona, the topminnow is also threatened by aggressive and predatory, non-native fish which have been introduced for recreational purposes. Other introduced species like the related mosquitofish harass adult topminnows and feed on the young, and are a major obstacle to the continuing survival of these fish. Only when a habitat is sufficiently large can these two species coexist.

Some of the topminnow populations are found on National Wildlife Refuges and are well protected. The species is also successfully reared in captivity and has been reintroduced into the wild. However, even with the gifted fertility of this fish, it is clear that the Gila and Yaqui topminnows need large, stable habitats to ensure their survival.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 928-929.

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