Barren County, Kentucky
Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
Pesticide Table for Fanshell | Pesticide Table for Kentucky Cave Shrimp
About the Fanshell | About the Kentucky Cave Shrimp
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Pesticide Table for the Fanshell
|Mosquito Larvicide Use||61|
|All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide||2c|
Limitations On Pesticide Use
|1||Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|1c||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.|
|2c||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.|
|20||Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.|
|41||Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|43||Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|61||Do not apply this pesticide as a mosquito larvicide within the shaded area.|
Pesticide Table for the Kentucky Cave Shrimp
|Mosquito Larvicide Use||7|
|All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide||7|
|COPPER SULFATE, BASIC||7|
Limitations On Pesticide Use
|7||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards of the edge of all caverns, sinkholes, and surface waters within the shaded area. For aerial applications, do not apply within 100 yards of these sites.|
|28||Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area, within 20 yards of the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|60||Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area.|
Fanshell [Cyprogenia stegaria(=irrorata)]
The fanshell is a medium-sized freshwater mussel up to 3.2 inches long. The color of its shell is light green or yellow, mottled with green with green rays on the outside and silvery white on the inside. It inhabits streams with gravely bottoms where it buries itself in the riffles and feeds by filtering food from the water.
Historically, the fanshell was widely distributed in the Ohio, Wabash, Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers as well as in rivers in the states of Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Currently, it is believed that the fanshell only reproduces in: the Clinch River, Hancock County, TN and Scott County, VA; the Green River in Edmundson and Hart counties, KY; and the Licking River, in Campbell, Kenton and Pendelton counties, KY. Non-reproducing populations still occur in a few other rivers.
The major factors in the fanshell's decline are: i) alteration of the stream habitat by impoundment; ii) destruction of habitat by sand and gravel mining; and iii) water pollution caused by, among other things, gas exploration and production and coal mining activities.
Mosely, C.J. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. pp. 1443-4.
Kentucky cave shrimp [Palaemonias ganteri]
The Kentucky cave shrimp is a small, nearly transparent crustacean with reduced eyes and lack of pigmentation indicating that it has survived underground in the absence of light for perhaps thousands of years. The cave shrimp is a nonselective grazer feeding on protozoans, tiny insects, fungae, and algae that have entered the cave in groundwater.
The cave shrimp currently inhabit the lowest passages of the Flint-Mammoth Cave System, the most extensive cave system ever discovered. This cave system, with an extensive network of underground pools and streams, is found beneath Edmonson, Barren, and Hart counties, Kentucky. The shrimp's aquatic habitats are replenished quickly through the porous soils, with some surface runoff entering through sinkholes. The early 1980's population estimate for this species produced a finding of approximatly 500 individuals.
Pervasive groundwater pollution as a result of extensive development within the Flint-Mammoth Cave region has led to the decline of the shrimp's already small population. In addition, agricultural runoffs, untreated sewage and highway related pollutants enter the watershed and affect the shrimp by depleting oxygen supplies and contaminating essential nutrients.