Edmonson County, Kentucky
Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
Pesticide Table For Freshwater Mollusks | Pesticide Table For the Kentucky Cave Shrimp
About Freshwater Mollusks | About Kentucky Cave Shrimp
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Pesticide Table for Freshwater Mollusks
|Mosquito Larvicide Use||61|
|All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide||2c|
Limitations On Pesticide Use
|1||Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|1c||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.|
|2c||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.|
|20||Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.|
|41||Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|43||Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|61||Do not apply this pesticide as a mosquito larvicide within the shaded area.|
|63||Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area. In addition, do not apply within 100 yards of the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1 mile for aerial applications.|
Pesticide Table for the Kentucky Cave Shrimp
|Mosquito Larvicide Use||7|
|All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide||7|
|COPPER SULFATE, BASIC||7|
Limitations On Pesticide Use
|7||For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards of the edge of all caverns, sinkholes, and surface waters within the shaded area. For aerial applications, do not apply within 100 yards of these sites.|
|28||Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area, within 20 yards of the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|60||Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area.|
Freshwater mollusks found in this area are one or more of the following; the Fat pocketbook, the Cracking pearly mussel, the Fanshell, the Pink mucket pearly mussel, the Ring pink ( golf stick pearly) mussel, and the Rough pigtoe mussel. All of these mussels are in the family Unionidae, a family restricted to North America. A far larger percentage of this family are imperiled than any other taxonomic (species) group. The United States used to have a major industry harvesting freshwater mussels for mother of pearl buttons, freshwater pearls, etc. There still may be a little harvesting, but not much.
Freshwater mussels can live up to 50 years. In the parasitic larval stage of the mollusk lifecycle, it is dependant on fish within its habitat not only for nutrients, but for providing the species with mobility. Yet only a few host fish are known. Mature mussels bury themselves in the riffles and shoals and feed by siphoning phytoplankton and other plant matter from the water. Reverse siphoning is used to expell undigestible particles from the shell. However, silt in the water can kill mussels by clogging their feeding siphons.
Major factors affecting mussel populations are alterations in temperature, waterflow, and siltation caused by stream damming and channeling. Agricultural runoffs and industrial practices have also affected the mussel habitat by degrading water quality and siltation. Because mussels are filter feeders, the effects of pollution are intensified due to the large quantities of water drawn through their siphons in the feeding process. Another significant threat is the widespread and rapid population growths of the introduced zebra mussel. The zebra mussel not only competes with native species, but also attatches to them (and anything hard) and can add so much weight that the native species cannot open to feed.
Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 955-956.
Kentucky cave shrimp [Palaemonias ganteri]
The Kentucky cave shrimp is a small, nearly transparent crustacean with reduced eyes and lack o pigmentation indicating that it has survived underground in the absence of light for perhaps thousands of years. The cave shrimp is a nonselective grazer feeding on protozoans, tiny insects, fungae, and algae that have entered the cave in groundwater.
The cave shrimp currently inhabit the lowest passages of the Flint-Mammoth Cave System, the most extensive cave system ever discovered. This cave system, with an extensive network of underground pools and streams, is found beneath Edmonson, Barren, and Hart counties, Kentucky. The shrimp's aquatic habitats are replenished quickly through the porous soils, with some surface runoff entering through sinkholes. The early 1980's population estimate for this species produced a finding of approximatly 500 individuals.
Pervasive groundwater pollution as a result of extensive development within the Flint-Mammoth Cave region has led to the decline of the shrimp's already small population. In addition, agricultural runoffs, untreated sewage and highway related pollutants enter the watershed and affect the shrimp by depleting oxygen supplies and contaminating essential nutrients.