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McCreary County, Kentucky

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for Freshwater Mollusks | Pesticide Table for Blackside Dace
About Freshwater Mollusks | About Blackside Dace
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Pesticide Table for Freshwater Mollusks

Active Ingredient Code
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2c
BENOMYL 1c
CAPTAN 1c
CARBARYL 2c
CARBOFURAN 1c
CHLORPYRIFOS  
Alfalfa, Peanuts 43
Apples 41
Mosquito Larvicide Use 61
All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide 2c
DIAZINON 2c
DICOFOL 2c
DIMETHOATE 2c
ENDOSULFAN 2c
ESFENVALERATE 1c
ETHION 2c
ETHOPROP 1c
FENAMIPHOS 2c
FLURIDONE 20
FONOFOS 2c
MALATHION 2c
METHIDATHION 2c
METHOMYL 1c
METHYL PARATHION 1c
MEVINPHOS 2c
NALED 1c
NITRAPYRIN 1c
PARATHION (ethyl) 2c
PENDIMETHALIN 2c
PERMETHRIN 1c
PHORATE 1c
PHOSMET 1c
PHOSPHAMIDON 1c
PROPICONAZOLE 1
PYRETHRINS 2c
TERBUFOS 2c
THIOBENCARB 63
TRICHLORFON 2c

Limitations On Pesticide Use

Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
2c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
61 Do not apply this pesticide as a mosquito larvicide within the shaded area.
63 Do not apply this pesticide within the shaded area. In addition, do not apply within 100 yards of the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1 mile for aerial applications.
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Pesticide Table for the Blackside Dace

Active Ingredient Code *TAR
ALDICARB 3 --
ATRAZINE (granular) 3 --
ATRAZINE (non-granular) 399 1.5
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2c --
BENOMYL 3 --
BENSULIDE (granular) 3 --
BENSULIDE (non-granular) 399 4
CAPTAN 3 --
CARBARYL 2c --
CARBOFURAN 3 --
CHLOROTHALONIL (granular) 3 --
CHLOROTHALONIL (non-granular) 399 2.8
CHLORPYRIFOS    
Alfalfa, Peanuts 43 --
Apples 41 --
Mosquito Larvicide Use 61 --
All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide 3 --
COPPER SULFATE, BASIC 3 --
CYPERMETHRIN    
Cabbage and Lettuce 2 --
DEF 2c --
DIAZINON 2c,10 --
DICOFOL 399 1
DICROTOPHOS 2c --
DIFLUBENZURON 3 --
DIMETHOATE 3 --
DISULFOTON 3 --
DIURON 3 --
ENDOSULFAN 3 --
ESFENVALERATE 3 --
ETHION 2c --
ETHOPROP 3 --
FENAMIPHOS 2c --
FLURIDONE 20 --
FONOFOS 3 --
ISOFENPHOS (granular) 3 --
ISOFENPHOS (non-granular) 399 0.5
MALATHION 2c,10 --
MANCOZEB 399 1.25
METHIDATHION 2c --
METHOMYL (granular) 399 0.6
METHOMYL (non-granular) 3 --
METHYL PARATHION    
Mosquito Larvicide Use 61 --
All Other Uses 3 --
MEVINPHOS 2c --
NALED    
Mosquito Larvicide Use 61 --
All Other Uses 3 --
NITRAPYRIN 3 --
OXAMYL (granular) 3 --
OXAMYL (non-granular) 399 1.25
OXYDEMETON-METHYL 3 --
OXYFLUORFEN 3 --
PARATHION (ethyl) 2c --
PENDIMETHALIN 3 --
PERMETHRIN 297 0.04
PHORATE 2c --
PHOSMET 2c --
PHOSPHAMIDON 399 4
PROFENOFOS 2c --
PROPACHLOR (granular) 3 --
PROPACHLOR (non-granular) 399 0.4
PROPARGITE 399 1.5
PYRETHRINS 2c,10 --
SULPROFOS 3 --
TERBUFOS 3 --
THIODICARB 399 7
THIOPHANATE-METHYL 3 --
TRICHLORFON 2c --
TRIFLURALIN (granular) 3 --
TRIFLURALIN (non-granular) 399 0.5

* TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of active ingredient per acre per application)

Limitations On Pesticide Use

Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
2 Do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.
2c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
3 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
10 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area. In addition, do not apply directly to water within 1 mile upstream from the shaded area.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
61 Do not apply this pesticide as a mosquito larvicide within the shaded area.
297 For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading key). For aerial applications, do not apply within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
399 Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.
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Freshwater Mussel[Unionidae]

Freshwater mollusks found in this area are one or more of the following; the Fat Pocketbook, the Orange-footed (pimple back) pearly mussel, the Pink mucket pearly mussel, the Ring pink ( golf stick pearly) mussel, the Dromedary pearly mussel, and the Rough pigtoe mussel. All of these mussels are in the family Unionidae, a family restricted to North America. A far larger percentage of this family are imperiled than any other taxonomic (species) group. The United States used to have a major industry harvesting freshwater mussels for mother of pearl buttons, freshwater pearls, etc. There still may be a little harvesting, but not much.

Freshwater mussels can live up to 50 years. In the parasitic larval stage of the mollusk lifecycle, it is dependant on fish within its habitat not only for nutrients, but for providing the species with mobility. Yet only a few host fish are known. Mature mussels bury themselves in the riffles and shoals and feed by siphoning phytoplankton and other plant matter from the water. Reverse siphoning is used to expell undigestible particles from the shell. However, silt in the water can kill mussels by clogging their feeding siphons.

Major factors affecting mussel populations are alterations in temperature, waterflow, and siltation caused by stream damming and channeling. Agricultural runoffs and industrial practices have also affected the mussel habitat by degrading water quality and siltation. Because mussels are filter feeders, the effects of pollution are intensified due to the large quantities of water drawn through their siphons in the feeding process. Another significant threat is the widespread and rapid population growths of the introduced zebra mussel. The zebra mussel not only competes with native species, but also attatches to them (and anything hard) and can add so much weight that the native species cannot open to feed.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 955-956.
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Blackside Dace [Phoxinus cumberlandensis]

The blackside dace is a small, colorful fish less than 8 cm. long. This fish is characterized by a single black lateral stripe, a green-gold back with black specks, a pale or sometimes brilliant scarlet belly, and fins that are are often bright yellow and metallic silver.

Consentrations of these fish are found in streams with large rocks, undercut banks, or where banks are lined with lush vegetation. They are believed to feed on algae, detritus, and sometimes insects but only in areas in which the streams current is swift enough to sweep away silt.

The blackside dace occupies approximately 23 km (14 mi) of about 30 streams in the upper Cumberland River basin, primarely above Cumberland Falls, in Pulaski, Laurel, McCreary, Whitley, Knox, Bell, Harlan, and Letcher counties in Kentucky, and Scott, Campbell, and Claiborne counties in Tennessee.

Threats to these populations are stream siltations caused by coal mining, agriculture, and road-construction runoff. In addition, competion from an introduced dace threatens the survival of this species.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 924-5.

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