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Warren County, Kentucky

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for Freshwater Mollusks | About the Fanshell | About the Rough Pigtoe
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Warren County, Kentucky
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Pesticide Table for Freshwater Mollusks

Active Ingredient Code
AZINPHOS-METHYL 2c
BENOMYL 1c
CAPTAN 1c
CARBARYL 2c
CARBOFURAN 1c
CHLORPYRIFOS  
Alfalfa, Peanuts 43
Apples 41
Mosquito Larvicide Use 61
All Other Uses Except as a Termiticide 2c
DIAZINON 2c
DICOFOL 2c
DIMETHOATE 2c
ENDOSULFAN 2c
ESFENVALERATE 1c
ETHION 2c
ETHOPROP 1c
FENAMIPHOS 2c
FLURIDONE 20
FONOFOS 2c
MALATHION 2c
METHIDATHION 2c
METHOMYL 1c
METHYL PARATHION 1c
MEVINPHOS 2c
NALED 1c
NITRAPYRIN 1c
PARATHION (ethyl) 2c
PENDIMETHALIN 2c
PERMETHRIN 1c
PHORATE 1c
PHOSMET 1c
PHOSPHAMIDON 1c
PROPICONAZOLE 1
PYRETHRINS 2c
TERBUFOS 2c
TRICHLORFON 2c

Limitations On Pesticide Use

Code Limitations
1 Do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.
1c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 20 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
2c For ground applications, do not apply this pesticide within 40 yards from the edge of water within either the shaded area or the upstream protection zone (described under the Shading Key). For aerial applications, do not apply this pesticide within 200 yards from the edge of water within the areas described above.
20 Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.
41 Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
43 Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards from the edge of water within the shaded area for ground applications, nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.
61 Do not apply this pesticide as a mosquito larvicide within the shaded area.
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Fanshell [Cyprogenia stegaria(=irrorata)]

The fanshell is a medium-sized freshwater mussel up to 3.2 inches long. The color of its shell is light green or yellow, mottled with green rays on the outside and silvery white on the inside. It inhabits streams with gravely bottoms where it buries itself in the riffles and feeds by filtering food from the water.

Historically, the fanshell was widely distributed in the Ohio, Wabash, Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers and other tributaries in the states of Alabama, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. Currently, it is believed that the fanshell only reproduces in: the Clinch River, Hancock County, TN and Scott County, VA; the Green River in Edmundson and Hart counties, KY; and the Licking River, in Campbell, Kenton and Pendelton counties, KY. Non-reproducing populations still are found in a few other rivers.

The major factors in the fanshell's decline are: i) alteration of the stream habitat by impoundment; ii) destruction of habitat by sand and gravel mining; and iii) water pollution caused by, among other things, gas exploration and production and coal mining activities.

Mosely, C.J. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol. III, pp. 1443-4.
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Rough Pigtoe Pearly Mussel [Pleurobema]

The rough pigtoe pearly mussel has a somewhat triangular shell with irregular, concentric growth marks. The mature dimensions are 6.5 cm. (2.6 in) long, 7.1cm. (2.8 in) high, and 4.3 cm. (1.7 in) wide. Color is a slightly glossy, yellowish to reddish brown. The inner shell surface varies in color from white to pinkish, reddish, or orange. This species is found in deeper waters in streams at least 20 meters (66 ft) wide where it buries itself in the gravel or sandy bottom and feeds by filtering food from the water.

Historically, this species was found in large rivers such as the Mississippi, Cumberland, Tennessee, and the Ohio River. However,it's current distribution is much more limited. It is known to be found near the confluence of the Green and Barren rivers (Warren County, KY), The Clinch River near Kyles Ford (Hancock County), Tennessee, and in the Tennessee River below Guntersville Dam (Marshall County, AL), Wilson Dam (Lauderdale County, AL), and Pickwick Dam (Hardin County, TN). There are no current population estimates.

The reasons for the decline of the rough pigtoe's population are not fully understood, however its longevity - up to 50 years - and the sedetary nature of mussels make them especially vulnerable to habitat alerations caused by dam construction, dredging, siltation, and pollution from agricultural and industrial practices.

Matthews, John R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol. II, pp. 1005-6.

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