Copiah County, Mississippi
Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.
Pesticide Table for the Bayou Darter | About the Bayou Darter | Reducing Runoff and Drift
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Table of Pesticide Active Ingredients
|COPPER SULFATE, BASIC||101||--|
*TAR = Threshold Application Rate (Pounds of Active Ingredient per acre per application)
Limitations on Pesticide Use
|1||Do not use this pesticide within 20 yards of the water's edge for ground applications, nor within 100 yards for aerial applications.|
|2||Do not use this pesticide within 40 yards of the water's edge for ground applications, nor within 200 yards for aerial applications.|
|10||For mosquito larvicide use of this pesticide, do not apply directly to water within 1 mile upstream from the shaded area, nor within 400 yards downstream for aerial applications.|
|20||Do not apply directly to water within the shaded area.|
|41||Do not apply this pesticide within 1/4 mile of the water's edge for ground applications nor within 1/2 mile for aerial applications.|
|43||Do not apply this pesticide within 100 yards of the water's edge for ground applications nor within 1/4 mile for aerial applications.|
|101||Read the information on Reducing Runoff and Drift (below).|
|299||Do not apply this pesticide above the threshold application rate (TAR) indicated within 40 yards of the water's edge for ground applications nor within 200 yards for ground applications.|
Reducing Runoff and Drift
Careful use of pesticides can diminish harm to the environment and reduce exposure of endangered and threatened species to pesticides. Using pesticide runoff and drift measures may be helpful in keeping more of the applied pesticide on the field and may also lower your costs of pesticides.
Where possible, use methods which reduce soil erosion, such as limited till and contour plowing; these methods also reduce pesticide runoff.
Where feasible, use application techniques such as T banding and in-furrow techniques, which incorporate the pesticide into the soil.
Pesticides with ground water warning labels are more likely to enter ground and surface water than those without such warnings. When possible, use a pesticide that does not contain a ground water warning label.
Keep informed about changing weather conditions, and try to avoid pesticide use when heavy rainfall is expected.
Wind direction, speed, and evaporation are important factors in reducing drift. Most importantly, pesticides should be applied when the wind direction is away from areas of concern; try to avoid application during periods of high winds. Avoiding applications during the hottest part of the day, when evaporation is highest, will further reduce drift.
When high winds and excessive evaporation are not present, a drift retardent may be useful for aerial applications.
Using the largest droplet size compatible with the pesticide coverage will reduce drift. Typically, higher spray volumes will also result in less drift.
For the Protection of Your Land, Always Read and Follow Label Directions
Bayou darter [Etheostoma rubrum]
The bayou darter is a brownish-yellow fish that grows up about 5 centimeters (1.9 in.) in length. It has russet markings on a field of dark yellow, a prominent double spot on the tail fin, and a dark bar under the eyes. Male darters are larger than females. Spawning occurs when the darter is about two years old, and life expectancy is three years. Darter fry hatch at the same time as mayfly larvae emerge and are the young darters primary source of food. Adult darters feed on various insects and plant matter.
This species is believed to be endemic to the Bayou Pierre and its five tributaries whose source is a small seep near Brookhaven in Lincoln County, Mississippi. The watershed arises in coastal hills with elevations of around 137 meters (450 feet). The water flow is moderate to swift with gravel with sandstone riffles of about 15 centimeters (6 in.) deep. Current range of the bayou darter appears to only include the Bayou Pierre and three of its tributaries (White Oak Creek, Foster Creek, and Turkey Creek). Upstream the habitat is limited by waterfalls and downstream by loss of suitable habitat. The largest concentration of bayou darters is in sections of the Bayou Pierre and Foster Creek in Copiah County, Mississippi.
Bayou darters require a specific habitat of sand and gravel riffles. Sand and gravel mining, agriculture, logging, and watershed construction threatens this species' viabilty and reduces suitable habitat for this fish. Dam building, dredging, and channel work also threatens bayou darter habitat by changing water flow and temperature. It has been noted that conservation efforts by timber industries and others have provided buffer zones along streams and obstained from habitat disturbances in attempts to preserve this species.
Matthews, John R. (ed.), The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 849-850.