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Lawrence County, Missouri

Information provided for informational purposes only

Note: This information is provided for reference purposes only. Although the information provided here was accurate and current when first created, it is now outdated.

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Pesticide Table for the Missouri Bladderpod | Pesticide Table for the Ozark Cavefish
About the Missouri Bladderpod | About the Ozark Cavefish
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Lawrence County, Missouri map

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Pesticide Table for the Missouri Bladderpod

Active Ingredient Product or Trade Name
2, 4-D (all forms) Includes: Crossbow, Dissolve, Envert, Esteron, Formula 40, Hi-Dep, NO-SOL, Salvo, Weed Rhap, Weedar, Weedestroy Triamine, Weedone
2, 4-DP (Dichlorprop) Includes: Weedone 2, 4-DP
Atrazine Includes: AAtrex, Bicep, Bullet, Contour, Extrazine, Guardsman, Harness Xtra, Laddok, Lariat, Marksman, Prompt, Shotgun, Sutazine, Surpass 100
Clopyralid Broadstrike Plus, Stinger, Transline, Confront
Dicamba Includes: Banvel, Clarity, Marksman, Resolve, Trimec, Weedmaster
Hexazinone Velpar, Pronone
MCPA, MCPB, MCPP Includes: Acme Brush Killer, Bronate
Paraquat Gramoxone Extra, Starfire
Picloram Access, Pathway, Tordon
Tebuthiuron Spike

Trade names provided by the University of Missouri Extension Service. For additional information, contact your local University Extension office.

Do not apply these herbicides within 20 yards (ground application) or within 100 yards (aerial application) of Missouri Bladderpod habitat within the shaded area(s) shown on the map. Missouri Bladderpod habitat is defined as limestone glades; outcrops along roadsides; barrens; pastures with large areas of bare limestone rock; areas with thin, rocky soils; or rocky, open woods. If you are unsure if you have Missouri Bladderpod habitat on property within the shaded area(s), contact your local Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) for assistance.

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Pesticide Table for the Ozark Cavefish

Active Ingredient Product or Trade Name
Benomyl Benlate, Tersan 1991
Carbaryl Sevin, Sevimol
Chlorpyrifos: all other uses except as a Termiticide Lorsban, Dursban, Pagent
Diazinon Diazinon, D-z-n
Dicofol Kelthane
Disulfoton Di-Syston
Endosulfan Thiodan, Phaser
Esfenvalerate Asana
Isofenphos Oftanol
Pendimethalin Prowl, Pursuit Plus, Squadron, Pentagon, Pendulum, Pre-M, Stomp
Permethrin Ambush, Pounce, Astro
Phosmet Imidan
Pyrethrins Pyrellin, Pyrenone, Pyrethrum, and others
Thiophanate-methyl Banrot, Cleary's 3336, Domain, Dousan, Fungo, Topsin M, Zyban
Tralomethrin Scout X-TRA
Trichlorfon Dylox, Proxol
Trifluralin Treflan, Tri-4, Trific, Trilin, Tri-Scept, Commence, Freedom, Passport, Salute, Snapshot 2.5TG, Team

Trade names provided by the University of Missouri Extension Service. For additional information, contact your local University Extension office.

Do not apply these pesticides within 20 yards (ground application) or within 100 yards (aerial application) of the edge of caverns, sinkholes, and surface waters. Pesticide use limitations only apply at specific site locations within the shaded area(s) shown on the map. Contact the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service at 573-876-1911 to determine if these pesticide use limitations apply to your site within the shaded area(s). (If a pesticide management plan has been developed for your property, the conditions of the plan take precedence over the pesticide use limitations described in this bulletin.)

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Missouri bladderpod [Lesquerella filiformis]

The Missouri bladderpod is a winter annual with numerous erect, hairy stems, measuring about 20 centimeters (8 in) in height. Its distinctive silvery leaves are hairy above and beneath, and are elongated and flat near the base of the plant. In late April or early May, bright yellow flowers with four petals bloom. The seed capsule usually splits open and disperses seeds within four weeks after flowering. This bladderpod has occasionally exhibited unusual growth patterns, growing for one or two seasons, disappearing completely the next year, and then reappearing the following year.

Historically, this plant existed in the five Missouri counties between Springfield and Joplin. The bladderpod's current existence, estimated to be fewer than 5,000 plants in 1986, is limited to just nine scattered sites within only three counties of this historic range. The species is found on private and public lands, including the Wilson's Creek National Battlefield Park which contains one third of the total population of Missouri bladderpods. Several populations also occur on highway rights-of-way.

This endangered plant is found in the unusual habitat of open limestone glades, which are often transistion zones between the prairie and the mature oak forests of the mountainous Ozarks. These glades are extremely uncommon in Missouri, and thus produce highly localized populations of the Missouri bladderpod. The suppression of natural fires in limestone glades have allowed for the conversion of the habitat to woody vegetation, specifically to the eastern red cedar in Missouri. The cedar is an extremely invasive tree that is a significant threat to smaller plants like the Missouri bladderpod which cannot adapt to the shade from the thick cedar canopy. However, succession is not the only threat to the bladderpod. Plants located in parks are subject to the stress of high visitor numbers and occasional collection. Improper timing of roadside maitenance (mowing, herbicides) can damage highway rights-of-way populations.

One way to improve and protect the habitat of the bladderpod and other native glade species is to remove eastern red cedars, allowing the sun to shine directly on the rocky ground year round. It is also important that fire be returned to the landscape to preserve the natural balance of the land. In 1995, the Fish and Wildlife Service, along with the Nature Conservancy and the Missouri Department of Conservation, began working on 90 acres of land adjacent to the Rocky Barrens Natural History Area to remove red cedar and conduct prescribed burns. The efforts produced a stunning success, as evident in the spring of 1997 when the land turned bright yellow with a profusion of Missouri bladderpod. In addition to the use of fire for recovery, the Missouri Botanical Garden is prepared to bring this species into protective cultivation under the guidance of The Center for Plant Conservation.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol I, pp. 248-249.
U.S. Department of the Interior. July/August 1997. Endangered Species Bulletin, Fish and Wildlife Service, Vol XXII, No 4, pp. 20-21.

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Ozark cavefish [Amblyopsis rosae]

The Ozark cavefish is a true cave-dwelling species in all of its features. It is a tiny fish, growing only to 5 centimeters (2 in) in length. It has an elongated, flattened head, and a projecting lower jaw. It is an albino fish, with its body nearly devoid of any pigment. The fins of this cavefish are locked far back on its body. Due to the darkness of its habitat, the fish has only a trace of where its eyes are located, relying instead on hair-like sensory structures on its tail fin to feel its way through its environment.

The Ozark cavefish is a mysterious creature which is rarely seen. Little is known about its behavior or life history. This fish makes its home in the caves of the limestone formations of the Ozark Mountains. This cave habitat is fragile, offering little diversity or quantity in terms of food supply. For example, when inhabiting caves occupied by the endangered Gray Bat, Ozark cavefish use bat droppings as their primary source of energy.

The historic distribution of this threatened cavefish is largely unkown. It is the only cavefish within the Springfield Plateau of southwest Missouri, northwest Arkansas, and northeast Oklahoma. Currently, the cavefish lives in at least 29 caves of these three states. Although still occurring throughout much of its historic range, the frequency of cavefish sightings is decreasing. On average, one is able to see about five fish at each population site. The existing Ozark cavefish population is highly localized; nearly two-thirds of the known individuals are thought to inhabit a single cave in Arkansas, where up to 100 fish have been observed in one area.

The decline of the Ozark cavefish may be due to degradation of subsurface water, possibly from sinkholes in the soluble limestone or from heavy agricultural use where animal waste seeps into the ground water or flows in from outside streams. Industrial and residential development has also caused water contamination, leaking toxic levels of nickel from urban wastes into at least one cave system. Because of its low reproduction rate and confined habitat, the Ozark cavefish is vulnerable to even casual collecting. For example, it is thought that a scientific collection in the 1930's may be responsible for the very low population of cavefish in one Arkansas cave. Amateur spelunkers also pose a threat to the fragile habitat of this species.

The recovery of the Ozark cavefish seems to rely on public protection of its cave habitats. Arkansas now owns the cave with the largest known population of the cavefish. Missouri purchased another cave which contains a small population of this fish, but has a considerable amount of habitat which may support a reintroduction effort.

Matthews, J.R. (ed.). 1990. The Official World Wildlife Fund Guide to Endangered Species, Beacham Publishing Inc, Washington, DC. Vol II, pp. 803-804.

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